Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Principles of Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Principles of Marketing - Essay ExampleMore than 50% of Indian consumers use ordinary rump soaps to clean their hair and usage of wash among majority of the populace is still restricted to social do as weddings and parties. While per capita consumption of shampoos is only 13ml in India it is 160ml and 330ml in Indonesia and Thailand respectively. The bigger players in Indian shampoo foodstuff atomic number 18 HLL, P&G, CavinKare, Dabur and Ayur (equitymaster.com 2007). Segmentation Companies divide grocerys into groups of consumers or separates with distinct needs and wants and identify which securities industry segments it can serve effectively. To develop the best marketing plans managers need to understand what makes each segment grotesque and different. Marketing theory categories preferences into three different sub-categories (Anderson 2008) Homogenous preferences When all consumers wee-wee roughly the aforementioned(prenominal) preferences and the market does not e xhibit any natural segments. Diffused preferences When consumers vary greatly in their preferences and if there are different brands in the market they are likely to position themselves throughout the available space and project real differences to match differences in consumer preferences. In shampoo market marketers almost always face a situation of diffused preferences as each kinsfolk has specific requirements and expectation from the products they use. Clustered preferences When natural market segments emerge from groups of consumers with shared preferences. Shampoo market is segmented primarily according to usage benefits. Some shampoos birdsong to serve the cosmetic benefits of providing strong, healthy and shining hair. Others claim to remove dandruff completely while the third category claims to deliver all the benefits related to herbal ingredients. The anti-dandruff segment is the fastest growing among the three segments with an annual festering rate of approximately 12% per annum (equitymaster.com 2007). There is also another small segment that is steadily gaining ground. This segment offers specialized shampoos as those that can be safely used in colored hair without removing the color. that this segment has not grown enough in size to warrant a separate analysis. Marketers also segment the market according to following criteria (Czepiel 1992) Geographic Segmentation It divides the market into different geographical units such as nations, states, regions, cities or neighborhoods. In shampoo market, however, such variations do not matter that much as targeted consumers in every region or nation would have same, or nearly same, perceptions about elegant hair. Demographic Segmentation It divides the market into groups on the basis of age, family size, family life cycle, gender, income, occupation, education, religion, nationality and social class. Marketers of shampoo concentrate on ladies, irrespective of their age, and their income while ma rketing their products. Though in some situations religion, especially Islam might also have to be taken into account. Marketers can now reach women very easily through television. Psychographic Segmentation Buyers are divided into different groups on the basis of psychological/personality traits, lifestyles or values. People within the same demographic group can exhibit very different psychographic traits. Marketers of sh

Monday, April 29, 2019

LAB 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

LAB 2 - Essay ExampleSpecifically, the most common and accepted manner of measuring gallop is using the electrical resistant strain gage.The strain gage is a drawn conductor made of a wire or a metallic foil that is in a grid-like pattern. In particular, the grid-like pattern maximizes the amount of strain in the parallel direction. The experiment uses a conductor (carrier) that is of keen strips of metallic film placed on a non-conducting substrate material. The wire is to the specimen and facilitates the transfer of the strain from the specimen to the strain gage. Accordingly, the transfer makes a linear change in the electrical metro. Precisely, the electrical resistance of a conducting wire fluctuates when the length of the conductor changes in a process called deformation or stretching. Consequently, the primer of the electrical resistance strain gage is the deformation. Under an ideal situation, the strain gage resistance ranges betwixt 30 to 3 k. Fundamentally, the res istance changes only a fraction of a percent in a full force range of the gauges. For this reason, a higher resistance change causes a changeless deformity to the test specimen. Therefore, a successful use of the strain gauge calls for a measure of modest changes under high

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Second (2nd) narrow bridge collapse Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Second (2nd) narrow bridge circuit collapse - judge ExampleThe cause of accidents in the construction of bridges has been attributed mainly to the error committed during the project design. The errors be caused by negligence in the spot of the contractors. The fatalities in the construction industry are caused by affliction to comply with the industrys safety and health guidelines. It is important to adhere to safety and health directives and guidelines to preclude future disasters such as the second narrow bridge accident.Wienand and Zunde (147-158) confirmed that the second narrow bridge was made of steel metals, timber and reinforced concrete. According to Akesson (124), the construction of new highway bridge in British Columbia began in November 1957. The second narrow bridge had six lanes and was a continuous oblige bridge (in all 1992 meter long) with the main 335-navigation span. It was also a cantilever construction having two guts spans, (142 m each). The second narr ow bridge had lanes specifically for the pedestrians and bicycles. It was the second bridge constructed at the Second (east) Narrows of Burrard portal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It was named the Second Narrows Bridge as it connects Vancouver to the north shore of Burrard Inlet, which includes the District of North Vancouver, the city of North Vancouver, and West Vancouver. It was constructed adjacent to the older Second Narrows Bridge, which is currently an exclusively rail bridge. The bridge was a steel truss cantilever bridge, designed by Swan Wooster Engineering Co. Ltd. On June 17, 1958, the north vertebral column span through failure of the temporary truss, collapsed without warning and caused death of the sixteen workers and two engineers.Akesson (125) said that on the fateful afternoon of June 17, 1958, the crane was stretched to join the two chords of the arch that was under construction from the north side of the new bridge. Just before

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Mapp v. Ohio court case Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Mapp v. Ohio court nerve - Assignment useerials did not belong to her but were actually the property of a former boarder at her offer she was arrested and charged with the possession of obscene materials and was indicted at the Cuyahoga County Grand Jury (Sundby, 2010).Mapps attorney tried in vain to have the evidence that was obtained finished a warrantless search of his clients property. After a trial lasting only a day Ms. Mapp was found guilty and sentenced to 7 years. After appeals that went through the Eighth District Court of Appeals of Ohio, Supreme Court of Ohio and eventually the Supreme Court of the United States, her article of faith was overturned. The impact of this case has been felt in the increasing use of the Suppression Hearing especially in cases that touch on the after part Amendment (Sundby, 2010).The main thrust of the case rested on whether evidence that was obtained in violation of the citizens Fourth Amendment which protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and specifically sets out the requirements for search warrants that must be ground on probable cause (Davies, 2007). The exclusionary rule, which was enforced by the Supreme Court in overturning the conviction of Mapp, basically stated that this evidence that was obtained in this was should never have been used in the first place. This rule, it was emphasized by the Supreme Court, is an essential part of the Fourth Amendment. Secondly, the lower courts had gone against the Fourteenth Amendment by denying Ms. Mapp her rights to Due Process. This case also brought into sharp focus the issue of officer misconduct which had for long been swept under the rug, with jurisprudence indiscretions being seen as just part of the job and not an aberration of citizens rights (Davies, 2007).The evidence that was gained by the police was totally illegal since it was obtained without a proper warrant as specified in the Fourth Amendment. It was therefore illegal and should n ever have been used to convict Ms. Mapp (Bloom &

Friday, April 26, 2019

Judiciary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Judiciary - Essay ExampleDue to relative miss of US Constitution to address certain issues, judiciary became important and was forced to intervene into the political social functions.The matter of appointment of judges and the way ideological familiarity was considered also allowed Supreme Court to change its overall role. The appointments especially made during the Reagan administration proved as controversial which allowed the ideological split within the court. What is however, critical to line of work that Rehnquist Court which was not as forceful in creating judicial activism. Justice Roberts too was a warm believer in the judicial modesty and it was during these periods that US went on to war without any significant shield from Court. (Lasser, 2011)Leaving political decisions to courts may force courts to actually overstate their constitutional mandate and become convoluted in issues which may not have any precedent or references to constitutional history of the

Thursday, April 25, 2019

The Strange Case of Dr.Jekyll and Mr.Hyde Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The irrelevant Case of Dr.Jekyll and Mr.Hyde - Essay ExampleHe reveals the hypocrisy of the member of his society through the contradicting actions of the same person.Without police there is no crime. Law is about norms and the societal standards of what is considered good or bad in a particular community. This is a society in which the pervert was highly regarded. He was respected by all(prenominal) and this can be verified by the attitude of Utterson who is even concerned by what the doctor had write in his will. It is common knowledge that for every right and privilege that one enjoys there is attached responsibility. The doctor was overwhelmed by the responsibility attached to his title. He was supposed to be gentle, genuine, intellectual and a gentleman as such. Deep inside, he wanted to mesh in activities that can be considered wild and may non well have been compatible to his title and status in the society. He is unable to engage in these wild dreams because of his con scious which dictates his action according to the expectations of the society of his status. As a result, he is unable to engage due to guilt.To be able to satisfy his fantancy and at the same save face for his original personality, he sets up a concoction that changes his personality at will and engages in his dreams. In His induced personality, Edward Hyde is heady and is non as caring as is expected of a physician. In this state, he tramples upon a superficial girl and the scene is witnessed by Enfield. This indicates his hypocrisy in his original personality. As a physician, he would not have been expected to undertake such an act. Hyde is a major suspect. Through all the acts that Hyde is able to strive without the suspicion leading to the Good Doctor we are able to see that as much as the doctor enjoyed evil deeds likewise he enjoyed the prestige associated with the personality that ironically he matte up bound to. In anonymity of the strange personality and secrecy of no t being known as the culprit the doctors

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Descarte's Philosophy of Calling Mind as a Thinking Thing Essay

Descartes doctrine of Calling Mind as a Thinking Thing - Essay Example indeed the stub of the existence of human beings is their mind or soul, not their bodies. Descartes philosophy of calling mind as a thinking thing Rene Descartes is a French mathematician come philosopher of seventeenth century who is unanimously called as Father of forward-looking Philosophy. Born in the year 1596 & died in 1650 due to pneumonia, Descartes produced lots of useful philosophical ideas which definitely shed light on the basis for a modern anti-scholastic philosophy. The most famous & most controversial philosophical statement give by Descartes was I think, therefore I am in his publication the discourse on the order in the year 1637, in which he explains that the essence of our mind is thought. If we do not think close to things around us & about ourselves, we dont make enough use of our brain & so we remain insignifi standt. In the year 1639, he started his work on Meditations & wrote a book named Meditations on number one Philosophy, which was highly criticized by most learned people of that time & by the cathedral too, as according to them Descartes gave such ideas which contradict with religion & Christian faith. Most of his publications regarding meditations contain the answers to the objections of his previously defined ideas & he tried to clarify himself about the misunderstandings which arose about his method. In his first meditation, he discussed all the way that our sensory(a) beliefs are not always trustworthy or reliable & mind is the just thing which can be termed as reliable as it thinks. In his second meditation, he argued that the mind takes the liberty of supposing everything to be nonexistent of which it has the least dubiousness of existing. However, during the process, as mind is the thing which is thinking the whole situation, so it moldiness exist itself .This is among one of the greatest use of our mind (Descartes. 1641). Descartes formally pr esented a theory of mind-body dualism in which he argues that our body is composed of different organs & parts & our mind has no connection with it. As in his first meditation, he says that sensory organs are doubtful thus the body itself has no cross reliability. This absolutely does not mean that in this perspective, a human does not exist or is insignificant. barely as compared to mind, body is nothing but a combination of solid joints. The concept of being deceived by someone or convinced on any point directly relates through mind, not from body. Hence for such things to happen, I must exist & I am a not a lucid animal but a thinking thing that doubts, understands, affirms, denies, is willing, is unwilling, and also imagines and has sensory perceptions (Descartes. 1641). The point that our mind only considers those things to be existent, which show their existence, like the mind itself, was explained by thinking of something that has a very least accident to exist. If the ex istence is proved, Descartes happily conclude that as the particular thing exists so it proves itself. However, if the supposed image or thing was not found existed by him, he was more than happy to say that anything on the population can be found if it exists, like human mind about which there is no doubt of existence. Mind is a creation of god which exists & thinks all the time about the existence or non-existence of otherwise things. Hence I am not simply a combination of

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

The roles of pubic relations in crisis managment Essay

The roles of pubic transaction in crisis managment - Essay ExampleThe aim of nurturing universal relations is to develop rapport with the public and by making them understand the organization and what its doing (Felea, 2004). Experts in public relation use all typology of communication with the public, as represented by personalities who are imbued with institutional and organizational identity (Felea, 2004). This process is deemed significant to avoid or wane down the opposition of employer and employees, in case of labor dispute, or probably to reduce threat in the food market in the case of financial crisis.In international relations, countries diplomatically develop public relations to ensure that social acceptability and to maintain social peace while engendering cooperation and collaboration on social constitution or agenda (Felea, 2004). This is also true in market relations to decide efficiency on commercial firms function and to maintain connections with its clients wh ile on employment operation (Felea, 2004). Thus, in commerce, a company would use advertisements and other related propaganda to better its relations with the public, its goods suppliers, services providers, labour suppliers, clients, competitors, public organisms (Felea, 2004, p. 1).Media is an instrument or tool for public relations. Companies relate with media to promote their products and to explicate its art operation and its campaign or probably to promote their activities relating to corporate social responsibility. With globalization taking the markets core, modern commerce necessitates media in social networking, including the explication of its definitional struggle in the interface of science and policy for the market.David (1999) for instance explicates the significant effort done my farming industry in explaining to the public cattle unhealthiness bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow. By doing so, the company is able

Monday, April 22, 2019

Measuring Performance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Measuring Performance - Essay ExampleThis report is fundamentally structured in devil parts such(prenominal) that first part of the report highlights financial analysis of FDP with the help of ratio analysis. withstand part of the report evaluates the non-financial indicators through Balanced Scorecard. Conclusion is provided at the end of this report which summarizes the performance of FDP. background signal Information Cut throat rivalry, shrinkage in profits and increasing redundancies turned out to be the prime factors that lead FDP to change its business st pass judgmentgy. The companions streamline business used to induce both non-urgent and urgent manner of speaking system of the parcel from both mail order companies as swell as from internet retailers. The normal non-urgent parcel delivery system used to take around 5 to 7 working days but due to excessively increasing and tightening situation of competition especially with the entrance of international players, it ha s become extremely difficult for FDP now to survive in such closed competitive environment of the non-urgent parcel delivery system. The board of directors of the company has realized all the situations and considered unlike options in order to boost the revenues of FDP. The final strategy that has been selected by the board is the discontinuance of the non-urgent parcel delivery system by replacing a fast urgent delivery system which would ensure that both parcel is delivered to its recipient within 2 hours of the order booking. Such adoption of the strategy requires significant count of investment in the existing operations of the business as the company requires more infrastructure and advancements in its communication and information technology based machines. It is intended to provide the parcel delivery personnel a notebook computer along with a parcel scanner such that they are linked with the underlying database system of FDP. Through all this communication devices, the tracking, collection and delivery of parcels would be delivered with much more gismo as well as ensuring their delivery less than 2 hours. The board has also decided to missionary station the premium price in respect of the urgent delivery system from the customers. Impact of Implementation of bare-ass Strategy upon the Financial Performance of FDP This strategy would be implemented from 1 December, 2011. Therefore, the impact of the change in strategy would definitely change companys financial performance for the upcoming year. The performance of the company in respect of its profitability, leverage, efficiency, liquidity and financing has been discussed as under Profitability Profitability is the most passing concerned area of financial performance as it is the basis upon which every business decision is interpreted whether it is small as per companys perspective or large. Whatever the decision the company takes, everyone is kindle to know as what would be the impact of that decision upon the profitability position of the company. Generally there are few profitability ratios that actually highlight the profitability in terms of various different perspectives. around of those ratios are discussed as under Net Profit Margin The company was struggling to maintain a steady growth rate in terms of its Net profit Margin in the noncurrent two years but with the implementation of the new strategy, the company can stabilize the growth rate of net profit margin

Essay of Analysis of No Logo Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Of Analysis of No Logo - Essay ExampleThe documentary deals with the backlash, which many transnational corporations are receiving, because of their unfair dominance of the global markets. The fact that they make profits at the expense of others is integrity of the reasons that they have come to develop a very bad reputation. Most of the multinational companies are plagued with scandals from both over the world and all of these because of not only their branding strategies, but also because of the fact that those who father their products work in appalling conditions. The documentary addresses the fact that some multinational companies have their products made cheaply in countries such as China and these are then branded and sold expensively in the western markets. Because of their activities, many companies have come to be immersed in scandals and the emergence of these scandals has worked against these corporations interests in the market since it created a situation where the p ublic views their products with a lot of suspicion.A further issue that is turn to in the documentary is the way through which multinationals are branding their products through falsely convincing the potence consumers of their worth. If it a fact that many of these corporations brand their products in such a way that they make the consumers ascertain inadequate without the said products. This makes the consumers want to by the said products at whatever price that they are asked, not caring for other priorities. Sales among these corporations have become paramount and this has gone against the tradition of making grapheme products for the market. Instead, multinationals have, over the past few decades, decided to go for the sale of the image of their products and not the products themselves (Klein, 2003). These corporations no semipermanent sell their products according to their own merits, but sell the

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Ownership in Foreign Direct Investment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ownership in contradictory Direct Investment - Essay ExampleSome of these creators be clearly envisioned in the casing study on Genting International and includes the fact that transnational possessorship give owners of companies the right and opportunity of benefiting from assiduity and investment laws that apply to both national companies and world(prenominal) companies. In the case of Genting International, because the company was based in Singapore, it had every right to participate in the bid if the bid had been opened to Singaporean companies alone. At the selfsame(prenominal) time, the company was in position to undertake a foreign market entry as an international company. The reason that has made this situation possible in most cases is that the different owners who come from different countries acquire always registered parts of the company in their respective countries (Savior, 2009). When a bid for international companies arise therefore, it is the owner with regi stration in a different country who participants in the bid so as to require a foreign market entry. Advantages of the present Foreign Market Entry For Genting International and Las Vegas Sands who curb own the two places available in the bid, there are several advantages that they are going to glean as foreign companies who have made investments in Singapore. The first of such benefits has to do with the fact that these companies are fortunate to be coming from an industry that could be described as relatively new in Singapore because of the ban on the operations of casinos that had been on the hospitality industry for a long time. Indeed, straight that these companies are coming in with such a vast amount of investment, they are going to majuscule a pioneering brand that would forever become a legacy in the casino industry in that country. If well monitored, this is going to be a major competitive advantage for future entrants into that sector of the economy. The reason for t his assertion is that by the time new companies come in, these two companies might have had their names settling well with customers. They might have also created a very formidable organizational culture would be too familiar with their customer for the customers to change them. Without any doubt, tax moratorium that the two companies have tenner age to benefit from because they are foreign companies is not something that can be overlooked as an important deserve at all. In a recent research, it was discovered that 12% of companies that were liquidated in the United Kingdom from the course 1992 to 2002 growed that fate because of their inability to grow beyond 2% a year (Gardener, 2007). Further investigations proofed that whereas these companies could not record 2% of growth over their append revenues, they were paying over 7% of taxes over their total revenues. In congruence, it could be said that these companies collapsed because of huge tax demands. This is certainly a s ituation that for the next ten years, the winning bidders are going to be exempted from. Clearly, the amounts of money that should have gone into the payment of taxes for all these ten years can be channeled to other sectors of growth, expansion and development. If for nothing at all, the companies can be investiture these amounts in long term financial investment policies so that when they start paying taxes, they would not suffer any shocks in terms of decline of revenue. Challenges associated with the present Foreign Market Entry Genting International and

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Unions and labor relations Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Unions and sweat relations - Research study ExampleNew business concepts such(prenominal) as outsourcing and offshoring helped organizations to operate in a multicultural environment. In other words, employers started to deal with a much more diverse work force because of globalization. The strategies needed to manage a diverse workforce ar entirely different form the strategies needed to manage a workforce of single culture. Different employees may have different needs, especially when they operating in a multicultural environment. For example, Muslim employees al managements like to have a break for prayer during the mid-noon of every Friday. Same way Christian employees always like to have off on every Sundays. If the employers prevent them from taking such luxuries, they will develop dissatisfaction and their loyalty towards the management may go into down. The needs of the employees argon changing quickly because of the advancements in living standards and the new challen ges coming in front of them as the time goes on. For example, living expenses are growing day by day and it is difficult for an employee to find his livelihood if the employer is not ready to join on his salary. Same way, workloads are increasing day by day and as a result of that employees are not getting enough time for leisure activities. Work-life balancing is an grievous aspect of labor relations. If the employees fight to find enough time to make it with their relatives and friends, their mental health could be damaged. Even if the employees get higher(prenominal) salaries for their extra work loads, they may not be satisfied if they fail to get time to spend with their beloved ones. Physical needs as well as psychological needs of the employees are important in maintaining better labor relations by the employers. American labor unions, taken... Unions and labor relations handle unions are organizations to protect the interests of the working class. In other words trade un ions always work for the melioration of the whole employees rather than the betterment of any individual employees. However, in some particular situations trade unions may work for the individual interests also. For example, if an employee was fired unnecessarily by the employer, trade unions may come for the rescue of that employee. The labor relation process includes recognition of the legitimate right and responsibilities of union and management. Better Employee-employer relations or labor relations is important for the smooth functioning of an organization In a troubled organization, employees may not deliver their bests and as a result of that the productivity and the efficiency of the organization may come down. This paper analyses the effect of changes in employee relations strategies, policies, and practices on organizational performance and the relevance of trade unions in America at present. betray unions are organizations which argue for the rights of the workers and be tter labor relations from the employers. Current workplaces populate of extremely diverse workforce and the needs of the diverse employees could be different. Employers should help employees to meet their physical as well as mental needs in order to maintain better labor relations. Trade unions are losing grounds in America at present because of the better treatment American employees contract from their employers.

Friday, April 19, 2019

Art History Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

artifice History - Research Paper ExampleWorks of art are meant to communicate a essence and this is evident in The Happy Couple by Judith Leyster and The Gleaners by Jean-Francois Millet. Both artworks are a unadorned of socio-economic events happening in the beau monde and their overall influence on shaping thoughts and ideologies. For example, The Happy Couple is an frame of love and tenderness that Judith Leyster did in 1630 when she lived in Netherlands with her husband. It was painted using oil on canvas and its dimensions are 81.8?110.7 cm (32?43 in) and it can be found currently at the Louvre, France. On the other hand, for Jean-Francois Millets The Gleaners, it has interesting features worth noting (Weiner, 2000). The painting was done in 1857 in the wake of the French Revolution to abet the unhorse-class workers. While using oil on canvas, Millet attempted to represent socialism as a means empowering workers over landowners who subjugate their interests. Interested persons can take note the painting at Musee dOrsay, genus Paris for viewing and enjoyment. Its dimensions are 83.8cm?111.8cm (33?44 in) and it is a realism painting that narrates the struggles of the French people especially the impose classes in their endeavors to succeed. The main agendas of the two artworks are directly linked to the agitation for recognition in a society that was increasingly becoming exploitative to the lower classes hence making life hard for them. This is storied in The Gleaners, an apt example of realism with the display of peasant women who are tilling land to find a harvest of wheat. As a result, the paintings depiction of real life implies that the lower classes were impeded by the upper group into entering the upward mobility (Walther, 2002). The inaccessibility was hence motivated by the growing gap between power and helplessness that characterized France after the French Revolution. In The Happy Couple, Leyster was uncover the various aspects of he r family that eventually bore her five children prompting her to leave painting. It means the painting infuses the elements of realism and symbol in communicating its message of bliss while also evoking a deeper sense of uncertainties and doubts in marriages. It is life-sustaining to compare The Happy Couple by Leyster and The Gleaners by Millet based on numerous reasons. They, for instance, represent vividly artistic periods of societies when art was a serious medium of communication unlike in the modern age. study the two artworks also gives an understanding of realism and symbolism and how they apply in the context of disseminating messages to the ordinary human beings beings as witnessed with The Gleaners. This is unlike Leysters painting that echoed a graceful period when people yearned for good marriages and children to cause families (Weiner, 2000). Therefore, the main idea of comparing the works is examine their significance today in the different structures of society especially the socio-economic and political factors. Leyster equally integrates brushwork to connect to a period of distress as she struggled to become a professional. For instance, her visual elements in The Happy Couple such as too much oil on the edges is another revealing representation of the surrealist period when art served for aesthetic purposes than as a tool of elevator consciousness. It is also noted in The Gleaners by Millet where the central focus of the background attaches itself the physical abundance that cannot be

Thursday, April 18, 2019

OpenChannel Flow Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

OpenChannel F small(a) - Lab Report ExampleA minimum particularised energy indicates a steady hang up with parallel streamlines especially in channels characterized with very miniscule slopes. Hydraulic jump, a phenomenon that depends on initial changeful velocity, occurs when the changeover velocity increases abruptly. As a result, the transition front breaks and curls back upon itself in conjunction with violent turbulence and eddy currents.The introduction of a weir along the channel of fluid flow results to an increase in the fluid level. An increased fluid signal or level is determined by measuring the upstream of the hydraulic structure. According to ToolBox (2014), the rate of fluid flow over the weir relates with the level of the weir. To determine the discharge constant for the weir, individuals should conduct some fluid analysis and calibration tests. In most cases, the discharge coefficient remains constant for a given set of head ranges. A specific energy diagram d etermines the possible heights and depths of weirs. A low level that supports vital flow results to a decrease in the fluid level without affecting the upstream (Kay, 2015). After achieving the unfavourable flow, an increase in the weir level leads directly affects the upstream fluid level.Typically, a subcritical flow produces a low vitality state while a supercritical state creates a faster and shallow flow. During a supercritical condition, waves produced by downstream eddies cannot travel upstream. On the other hand, subcritical conditions initiate upstream travel of waves produced at the downstream due to the slower flow of fluids. The diagram below demonstrates the water profile along the flow channel with various regions where subcritical and supercritical flows

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Expected Frequency even in dessert Research Paper

Expected Frequency even in dessert - seek Paper ExampleIt has also been observed that families with children have higher rates of consumption as compared to those without children. mingled flavors of ice bat are found in the market today and these include chocolate, vanilla extract, cooky bread/ cookies and balm, mint chocolate chip, butter pecan/ Swiss almond, strawberry, peanut butter, coffee, cherry vanilla and peach, among many others. tally to a Harris Interactive poll conducted in 2013, chocolate and vanilla are the favorite flavors followed by cookie dough/cookies and cream. In terms of gender, a disparity exists in favorite flavor for women, almost a third prefers chocolate flavor followed by mint chocolate chip and cookie dough/cookies and cream. However, for men, vanilla tops the list of favorite flavors followed by chocolate and cookie dough/cookies and cream.The dynamics of ice cream and frozen desserts consumption does not end with demographics and flavor, how the consumers actually ware their ice cream also varies from single group to another. Methods of consumption include eating it form a cup, cone, sundae, sandwich and others, including eating it as a topping on a cake. Disparities exist here too. It has been hypothesized that a relationship exists between gender and how they eat ice cream. For instance, according the aforementioned Harris Interactive poll, more men than women prefer eating ice cream in cups while more women than men prefer cone. This influence of gender on how a psyche eats their ice cream has not been well researched and this is the motivation for this research. The paper aims to investigate whether gender and ship canal of eating ice cream and other frozen foods are related, or whether the choice is independent of gender.For this study, selective information will be collected from students on how they eat their ice cream. Accordingly, data was collected from a consume of 40 students. To ensure that the data is not biased, efforts were be made so that the

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Chalk Dust, Cinnamon Spice and Coffee Ground as Insect Repellants Essay Example for Free

frappe Dust, Cinnamon Spice and C byee Ground as Insect Repell emmets EssayBACKGROUND OF THE STUDY in that respect are several ho workhold problems we and our helpers encounter at home. These may be issues regarding viands supply and storage, cleanliness and sanitation. ane of the most common problems is the presence of ho implementhold pismires, especially the red ones, causing a disturbance in our accept system of food storage. Red household ants do not only infest stored food in the kitchen nevertheless to a fault bite our skin and destroy well- landscaped gardens by building ant hills. Because of this observation, we decided on conducting a study that would eliminate ants with the use of alternative substances that bottom of the inning also be found at home. With this study, we pass on not only discover former(a) uses and benefits of household waste products but also provide new ways of promoting clean and sanitized homes by eliminating insects. at once proven effect ive, grouch dust which is one waste product in the classroom, will also be of good use at home.OBJECTIVEThe study aims to find more(prenominal) possible uses of household waste products aside from stay as garbage such as cocoa yard, and discover further and effective use of internal-combustion engine dust. Also, we aim to eliminate household insect especially ants that would cause a nuisance in our kitchen.definition OF TERMSTalcum Powder- an ingredient in both chalk and baby powder, and is a natural ant repellant. Brewed Coffee- drinking chocolate pleadd from a process with the use of java come tor wherein hot water drips onto coffee fuses held in a coffee filter made of paper, plastic, or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through with(predicate) the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or pot, and the spent effort are retained in the filter. Coffee ground- is the apply bitter p owdered coffee that remains in a pot or coffee-maker after brewing yourcoffee.HYPOTHESIS All third substances tested will give significant results in repelling ants.VARIABLESINDEPENDENT CONTROLLED* 50 grams of coffee ground * 50 grams of cinnamon spice * 50 grams of chalk dust * Similar area where the three experiments will be conducted, same length * The same ant pathway where the substances will be placed * 1-3 tbsp. of kail Resulting Variable Time it takes for the ants to move away from the repellantsCHAPTER IIRELATED LITERATUREAnt and Its SymbolismChinese consider and identified ant as the righteous insect and attribute orderliness, virtue and patriotism. On the other hand, Muslims consider the ant as the earthly teacher of Solomon and an embodiment of experience. (Retrieved from http//sherryandrea.com/ant-symbolism-and-meaning/)http//www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1570-ant-in-jewish-literature-theIn the Old Testament, the Ant is referred to as some harvesting species wh ich are to this day found in Syria and all around the Mediterranean basin. These species wherever they are found, as the latest investigations of naturalists have proved, lay up stores for the winter. In the Tamuldic Literature, The ant was mentioned being experimented by Simon ben Halafta to ascertain whether they inhabit without a ruler. Also, it was mentioned that ants procure food. There were also statements in the Book of Proverbs where it is aimed out that the wisdom of the Creator is manifested in the fitness of the body and wonderful life of the Ant.From a purely scientific point of view, the Ant is treated by Gershon benSolomon, in his work, Shaar ha-Shamayim. The Ant, he says, gathers its wheat in the harvest, biting off the germs of the grains in order to prevent them from sprouting and thus preserving them from rotting- a fact verified by new observation. The Ant, he says further, is proportionately the strongest of all creatures, being able to carry from two to four times its own weight. Moreover, it can move both ways, forward and backward.History of Brewing CoffeeIn the early tale of coffee, the coffee beans were dried and eaten. By the 16th century, coffee was roasted before being ground and boiled in water. The entire resulting mixture of liquid and grounds would be consumed. The invention of the Ibrik (A small pot used in brewing and serving Turkish coffee that was invented in the late 16th century.) allowed for a more skillful technique of brewing. In the 18th century, the French developed the drip brewing technique wherein coffee is produced by using a cloth bag as a filter to separate grounds from the liquid coffee. This technique allowed for steeping the coffee at a lower temperature as it was not brewed while forever subjoining heat. (Retrieved from http//coffee.wikia.com/wiki/Brewing)Chalk in Prehistoric TimesAs found in nature, chalk has been used for selective service since prehistoric times, when, according to archaeologists, it helped to create some of the earliest cave drawings. Later, artists of different countries and styles used chalk in the main for sketches, and some such drawings, protected with shellac or a similar substance, have survived. Chalk was runner formed into sticks for the convenience of artists. The method was to grind natural chalk to a fine powder, then add water, clay as a binder, and various dry colors. The resultant putty was then rolled into cylinders and dried. Although impurities produce natural chalk in many colors, when artists made their own chalk they usually added pigments to render these colors more brainy. Carbon, for example, was used to enhance black, and ferric oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) created a more vivid red.CHAPTER IIIMETHODOLOGY1. Gather the variables needed. You can find cinnamon spice in your kitchen. If not, you may use any spice available (e.g. pepper, black pepper, garlic). Collect coffee grounds after brewing coffee with the use of a coffee maker. Collect cha lk dust from other classrooms. Meacertain(p) the quantity and make sure that each one reaches the same amount- 50 grams. 2. Choose an area at home where you can find an ants pathway and measure its length. This will also be one of the controlled variables in the experiment. 3. Make sure that there are ants present. If none, place a few pinches of sugar or food crumbs to attract the ants. 4. Once the ants are present, choose among the three substances to be placed first along the path and put it every bit making a thin line. 5. Record the time it takes for the ants to leave the place. 6. Repeat steps three to quin with the use of the other two substances and record the results on the Table of Data and Observation below. You may also take pictures during the experiment.

Types of surveillance Essay Example for Free

Types of management Es enjoin command whitethorn be physical, which involves watching a particular entity physically, know as optic watch or it may be achieved by listening (this is known as aural surveillance). watch may to a fault be achieved through the use of image amplification devices like field glasses, binoculars, planet cameras and so on (Bogonikolos). Electronic circuits have been developed to complement physical surveillance, for example, the Closed-Circuit TV, also known as CCTV, VCR, phone bugging, e- infobases and proximity cards have been developed to facilitate surveillance. Apart from physical surveillance, other(a) types of surveillance exist, for example communications surveillance exists which include mail covers and phone interception (Bogonikolos). Another type of surveillance is known as data surveillance or Dataveillance which involves the systematic use of private data systems to observe actions and communications of people and suspects. It is less expensive than physical and electronic surveillance because of the automation features it has.Dataveillance may be personal or megabucks. Personal dataveillance occurs where a person has been identified as a suspect or is of particular interest while a large group of people are monitored in mass Dataveillance. This mass dataveillance is done to protect the entire population and to deter people from causing harm to others. Tools and Techniques of Surveillance Dataveillance Techniques are used for checking data to make sure that it conforms to certain standards and specifications.Front-end verification (FEV) is a method of data surveillance that involves checking the information supplied by an applicant with other additional sources of information about that person in order to get word discrepancies (Bogonikolos). When front-end verification is applied to everybody, mass dataveillance is said to have taken place. Mass dataveillance is a continuous process that involves the followin g authentication and screening of all transactions, audit of individuals, and the profiling of persons and transactions to identify possible threats of terrorism.Mechanisms that may be used to achieve this include computer data matching, in which personal records are compared and analyzed. These methods may however result in the black listing people that may be innocent. Data surveillance is cost-effective. Physical surveillance is expensive because it requires many resources. Surveillance attempts to track what people do, say and where they go (Bogonikolos). Visual Surveillance Closed-Circuit TV (CCTV) is one of the most common electronic techniques of visual surveillance.CCTVs may be deployed on roads, railway stations, ATMS, petrol stations, lifts, lobbies and areas that are easily prone to attack. Recording may be done in real-time or time-lapse mode. Cameras may also be used and this is super portable. Video Surveillance can help to reduce the risk of attack, protect citizens form attack, monitor abhorrence and subsequently gain crucial evidence that may lead to the identification and prosecution of suspects. Cameras may also be deployed in a covert manner so that people are not cognizant that it exists (Bogonikolos).

Monday, April 15, 2019

Execution of Strategy Essay Example for Free

Execution of Strategy EssayExecutives, or corporate-level managers, are in charge of many things governing the success of the company as a whole. Among these are developing a strategic vision and business mission, setting objectives, crafting a strategy, implementing and executing a strategy and evaluating the performance of the strategy.Strategies are especially important because of the value-creation process that occurs because of it. Sometimes, though, execution of strategies fail and the question here is why? unrivaled possible reason is that the strategies developed by the executives are too broad and do non take into consideration the environment of the unwaveringly at the operational level, which is the lowest level and the closest to the markets. single possible way to curb this problem is through a bottom-up approach, wherein the operational-level managers submit their proposed strategies and the corporate-level managers evaluate and respect these, or the top-bot tom-top approach, wherein the corporate-level managers forward their suggested strategies to the operational-level managers, who make changes accordingly, and evaluate the said changes before approving the strategy. Supple Supply ambit According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2007), the term supple means to be able to easily adapt to in the buff circumstances.When we say that a supply chain is supple, we simply mean that a sign of the zodiac is precise flexible in terms of its ability to synchronize its functions and those of its suppliers to match the flow of service, information and materials with cutomer demand. A firms environment is constantly changing, especially in our day and age with the advent of technology which brings somewhat study changes to the flow of communication. A firm that cannot take advantage of these changes is sure to fail.For example, the Daimler-Chrysler Corporation had a major problem with regards to the delay in production when a certain portion of its parts was just a tiny bit too large or too small it would have taken ages for changes to be made. Today, however, using a program called Powerway, which ables the firm to collaborate more easily with their suppliers, the firm can today avoid delays by forseeing the problem and adjusting accordingly before it even occurs (Mayor, 2007). The best strategy a firm can employ to ensure a supple supply chain is to take advantage of the forward technology, as the Daimler-Chrysler Corporation has done.The new programs developed by the IT industries offer a way for firms to know and envision the production and business processes to allow for quick response to changes in the firms market (Mayor, 2007). One thing to understand, though, is that one should not confuse a supple supply chain with a reactive supply chain, because a responsive supply chain is a strategy of the firm to counter groping demand wherein a supple supply chain is a characteristic of the supply chain.Refe rencehttp//www.cio.com/ obligate/119301/The_Supple_Supply_Chainhttp//www.m-w.com/dictionary/supple

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Educational Policies and Practices Essay Example for Free

Educational Policies and Practices bear witnessChange is a process, not an event. It can be planned or unplanned and can be influenced by forces inside and outside of the informhouse. (http//wps. prenhall. com/chet_green_practicing_2/23/6137/1571248. cw/index. html). Current education reform has hard-pressed the urgency of instructor learning in improving classroom education and expanding scholarly person success. Current education reform in the United States has increasingly described standard levels of mastery for learners and focused on holding schools responsible for disciple outcomes.As one approach for increasing student attainment, officials book zoned in on improving the standard of measurement of public school educators (Parise Spillane, 2010). Certain policy plans concentrate on the dimension involved in refine the quality of educators coming into the bea of teaching through state accreditation exams, more rigorous degree requirements, and recruitment eff orts.In addition to the aforementioned, increased responsibility and stress on schools involve learning and modification for umpteen of the educators al presenty working within this capacity, as they are pushed to apply new instructional methods and advances in swan to promote and foster student achievement (Parise Spillane, 2010). Assessing the Condition Loris tall School Trevor Strawderman, principal of Loris High School, Horry County, southwest Carolina, reorganized educational structure to benefit the school. In 2005, Loris High School ranked in the throne percentile among high schools, scholastically, in the state of South Carolina.Principal Strawderman knew that issues in the area of literacy plagued the schools academic performance. Assessment statistics revealed that 74 percent of the 9th and 10th graders of the school were interlingual rendition below grade level. As a result of this issue, dropout and class failings soared to exceedingly high figures (http//www. na ssp. org/Content. aspx? field of study=59746). Strawderman, the newly appointed principal at the time, and other leaders of the school were aware of this issue, but did not realize the severity until results were revealed from student assessments.It was pertinacious that the majority of the 9th and 10th graders at the time were nurture way below grade level. After examining the textbooks utilised in the school, it was discovered that the 9th and 10th grade level books were written for 10th/ 11th grade reading comprehension. Upon the discovery of the low reading skills, Strawderman met with faculty to inform them that win overs were necessary to improve reading skills of the students. Data amass closely the student reading assessments was Mr. Strawdermans proof as he provided information for this needed convert (http//www. assp. org/Content. aspx? topic=59746). Implementing Necessary Change The schools leadership group began to read and study about ways to improve on reading . Through the study it was discovered that providing more reading would be the scoop solution. The leadership team identified a process that could be utilized to achieve the lot. Through the vision of Strawderman and the leadership team, a homeroom reading initiative was put in place immediately. Two days for 50 minutes a week have been designated for this activity. Students were grouped by grade level and lexile level.Strawderman and his team stressed the importance of steering away negative connotations with this activity, and felt that grouping by lexile level was pertinent (http//www. nassp. org/Content. aspx? topic=59746). Challenges and Rewards As with switch over, Mr. Strawderman faced defiance by some faculty members. Comments like, Some students are going to study this is stupid and childish, were used to discourage this new activity. As the process began, aproximately $70,000 was spent on high fill inventory reading. Strawderman and his committee did all of the work, not putting the strain on the teachers with implementing this program.This process was made booming as possible for the teachers. After the program began, it was discovered that the students loved the program. The majority of the at-risk students enjoyed it the most. What was also discovered, is that every student may act is if they do not like to read, but they all want to know how to read (http//www. nassp. org/Content. aspx? topic=59746). Within this program celebrations were rendered and awards are given as incentives. This program provided an additional 33 hours of reading in the school for the year and has provided a positive outlook for the schools reading deficit.Since Strawderman became principal, the school has made noteworthy and substantial cultural and meaningful changes that have led to effective progress for each student. Strawderman understood that the necessary changes implemented could not done by him solely. Along with making improvements for students, Strawderma n also realised the importance in providing leadership and support for his staff members. He envisioned a school of maestro learning communities in which teachers worked together to choose every day to shew a difference in the lives of our students (http//www. assp. org/Content. aspx? topic=59746). First Order or Second Order Change? First and second wander change are natural occurrences involved within settings of change. It has been reported that uninterrupted, first order change happens without preventive to the system in place. Within this particular order of change the leader is involved in pushing for improvement within the productivity and value of a school or program without making major alterations to what has been established among teachers and students.In addition, this conflict often faces less confusion and divergence (Green, 2013). Second order change, on the other hand, faces uneasy transitions because of change and interruption to the system in place. In this pa rticular order of change the existing order is taken in another direction for the good of the school or program. what is more there are new objectives, as well as changes in structure and programs in which individuals are asked to function differently within their role (Green, 2013).Becoming principal of Loris High School, opened doors of opportunity for Trevor Strawderman to make necessary changes for the betterment of the school. Strawderman initially took some matters in his hand to push for this change by presenting data figures to faculty as proof of the situation in need. As a result of this new change every teacher was given a task to apply student lexile levels from the Measures of Academic Progress -Reading (MAP-R) computerized assessments to gauge students mastery of basic reading skills (http//www. nassp. org/Content. aspx? topic=59746).Because implementing these changes required disruption to the already established program curriculum, Strawderman and his team faced so me defiance. This situation is reflective of the second-order change. The Good and the Bad Although the reading program at Loris High School has brought forth much success, negativity surfaced at the beginning stages of implementing this program. Mildly disgruntled teachers gave notion of their shun of ever-changing their already established curriculum without consulting them fully.Before allowing the situation to escalate with these faculty members, Mr.Strawderman could have met with the teachers to wait on questions and to address concerns about the immediate change once he brought it forward. (http//www. nassp. org/Content. aspx? topic=59746). Working collaboratively with faculty could have also presented a variety of innovative ideas. Michael Fullans reports on research indicates that institutionalization of modification and change is extremely challenging. Moreover, additional reports reveal that school improvements that are substantial and long-term rarely can be set, autho rize or guided by organizations or individuals (Fullan, 1993).When change occurs in a school setting the future(a) attitudes may arise teachers may feel a sense of in adequacy or privation of preparation, or they may fear the unknown or perceive a loss of power or control (Green, 2013). Conclusion Through this assignment an abundance of useful information was grasped regarding leadership and instructional change. referable to the changes in time, it is pertinent for all leaders to foster the ideas of bringing forth instructional change in a school setting.The way children are educated must change because children, the world, and economics are changing daily. At times change is considered taboo and frightening. However, when handled effectively and efficiently, it may be the cure to an ailing situation. thither is much confidence among the reorganizers of school and researchers in the field of education that enhancing the learning opportunities of practicing teachers will boost an d amaze teacher performance and progress to developmentally improved student outcomes (Parise Spillane, 2010).

Friday, April 12, 2019

Roman Empire Culture Essay Example for Free

capital of Italyn Empire Culture EssayWikipedias gateway on the Fall of the Roman Empire is a comprehensive and multifaceted visual sense of the scholarship which seeks to indicate a certain period or event or series of events which caused the legislate of the Roman Empire. One of the important differences between the Wikipedia entry and a traditional encyclopedia entry is the extensive analysis with which the Wikipedia entry is up to(p) to devote to sub-sections and sub-theories under the general banner of discussion. The question of assigning a specific accompaniment for the fall occupies a great deal of the Wikipedia article. The traditional date acknowledged is September 4, 476 when Romulus Augustus, Emperor of the Western Empire, was deposed by Odoacer. But the Eastern Empire continued until the fall of Constantinople nearly a century later in 1453. Other dates in contention are 395, the year of the death of Theodosius, the last time the Empire was coupled the cross ing of the Rhine by Germanic tribes in 406 after the withdrawal of the legions to battle Alaric I or the radioactive decay of the western legions following the death of Stilicho in 408. M whatever scholars disdain the term fall, preferring to describe what was contingency as a complex transformation. The Wikipedia entry while seeming to dwell inordinately on a specific time or date of the fall is in actuality providing the researcher with a alter primer on the myriad theories which attend the question of historical dates of the Roman Empires fall. Though the tone of the Wikipedia entry is scholarly, the lengthy digressions and somewhat scattered patterns of information make the entry less streamlined than a typic encyclopedia entry. In addition, the numerous off-site links and cross-references can prove to be distractive. And although the Wikipedia entry itself well resembles scholarly writing there can be no assurance regarding the veracity of off-site links. The almost obvio us bias that is apparent in the Wikipedia entry is resounding insistence that there is a date of collapse for the Roman Empire. The entry cites Edward Gibbon who argues the Roman population lost its way by allowing the Germanic tribes and other barbarian mercenaries a greater role in defending its interests. Gibbon claims Christianity was a bring factor as well, turning the populations attention to other-worldly as opposed to here-and-now events. Rather than examine contradictory theories in detail, the Wikipedia entry consumjes most of its energy revealing the survey of theories which argue for a date of collapse for the Roma Empire. Wikipedia surveys the Pirenne Thesis, wherein Henri Pirenne argued the Empire continued until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century, which disrupted Mediterranean trade routes and low-spirited the European economy. Pirenne sees the crowning of the Frankish King Charlemagne as the first Holy Roman Emperor in 800 as a continuation of the Empire. But it is J. B. Burys contention in his History of the subsequent Roman Empirewhich receives critical attention in the Wikipedia article. His theory is that what amounted to a perfect storm of events unite to spell the downfall of the Empire *Economic decline *Germanic expansion in the population and multitude *De-population of Italy *The treason of Stilicho *The murder of Aetius and the lack of a leader to replace him Bury says the Empire could have survived any of these events separately, but could not overcome the convergence of them. William Carroll Barks Origins of the Medieval World reasons that basic economics was the Empires undoing. As a pre-cursor to feudalism, the tenant farmers obligation was to pay a fixed assessment of taxes on his grain supply. The oppressive taxes kept the farmers impoverished and unlikely to move into the more than prosperous middle class. In fact, what middle class there was was forced to become collectors of the taxes for the unable central reg imen. Government coffers suffered as a result. Also, the scarcity of gold late in the Empire made matters worse. pretension of the currency in relation to its value in gold resulted in more people demanding retribution in gold. The governments cash-flow problems required them to seek cheaper mercenaries as defenders. Radovan Richta says technology contributed to the Empires demise. The Germanic invention of the horseshoe and use of the new Chinese compass allowed mercenaries quicker access to Roman defenses. Arnold Toynbee and pile Burke also examine economic causes at the root of the Empires fall. The Romans had no budgetary system and wasted available resources as a result. The economy was basically based on trophy alternatively than production of new proficients, and that declined along with territorial expansion. Landowners were exempt from taxation, making revenue production inefficient and unfair. The middle-class, the backbone of any free economy, was nearly non-existen t. Exports were scarce. Military and bureaucratic costs increased. In overthrowing Romulus Augustus, the barbarian conqueror Odoacer assumed neither the title nor the responsibility of governance. William H. McNeill in Plagues and Peoples notes a 20-year-long plague in the late morsel century killed half of Europes population. The reduced tax base was unable to support the government and military and the resultant economic and social decline also killed the Empire. Further theories of the cause of collapse grow through the Wikipedia article. So much so that one begins to feel that each sub-section of the article has been contributed by an partisan of that particularly pet-theory, sacrificing a general tone of scholarship for a tone of specificity and personal expertise. Examples of this include Wikipedias survey of Peter Heathers theory that the threat posed by the Sassanid Persian Empire has been overlooked as a cause for the Roman Empires fall. He used archaeological evidence t o suggest the Romans were stretched militarily by their intentness with the Persians, allowing a succession of Huns, Goths, and Germanic barbarians access to their territory. A researcher who is searching for a very good primer regarding the abundance of theories which exist in scholarship to examine the historicism of the Roman Empires fall will beget excellent information in the Wikipedia article, as a general and unverified outline of the scholarship. However, a deep-researcher would plausibly find the entry inconsistent, erratic, and of little value for serious scholarship as a go-to source rather the Wikipedia seems to serve better as a thumbnail sketch of info and links to other sources of potential value. beginning The Fall of the Roman Empire. wikipedia.com. Retrieved from the Internet March 16, 2007.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

The Security Council Essay Example for Free

The credentials Council EssayThe tribute Council of the unite Nations was one(a) of the original bodies of the UN formed with the linked Nations aim in 1945. The Security Council was created to put all the superpowers of the world on extend to footing, giving each one vote in binding resolutions for the member nations of the UN. The charter members with permanent seats on the council are the United States, France, Great Britain (the United Kingdom), Russia and China. In 1945, these nations were considered the most powerful on Earth and were charged with keeping the ease of the world. In addition to the five permanent seats, the Security Council is comprised of 10 other member nations elected by popular vote of the entire UN and serving two-year terms. Each member nation of the Security Council has equal power in theory, though in practice some deference is given to the permanent members. The Security Council so-and-so pass binding resolutions on the other member nations, but each council member can veto any resolution. As much(prenominal), the Security Council rarely can form a consensus, though it practically discusses major issues around the world.Often, the only time a consensus is reached is when the matter is so trivial or involves such a small country that it has no friends on the council. Though the council was set up to leave inbred checks and balances, it has often become a staging ground for popularity contests and member nations have neglected the worlds best interests in favor of the more proprietary interests of their nation. This is how platforms like the United Nations Oil for Food program have become corrupted by individual nationalism and greed.Furthermore, on the rare occasions when the Security Council can agree and pass a binding resolution, it has limited enforcement powers and often the only punishment for disruption a resolution is a verbal slap from the council. Some member nations, particularly the United States, have lead coalition forces on occasion to enforce UN resolutions, but these military actions often are disapproved by many member nations and the Security Council itself rarely votes in favor of military action.The end result is that the United Nations provides an interesting forum for smaller countries to air grievances and for all countries to point out flaws in their neighbors, but as a governing body, the United Nations and the Security Council has no teeth. It becomes like a restrictive parent who tries to assort a child what to do, but fails to enforce its own influences. In the end, no one respects the rule of the United Nations and might still makes right.Smaller countries object to the permanent members of the council and their might, both military and economic, but they in addition turn to those countries when they are the ones being oppressed. In short, the United Nations and the Security Council format need to be revisited and the UN essential be given some enforcement p ower to assure that its resolutions are kept. Otherwise, it is a useless home of disceptation that is ignored and laughed at.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Life Is What You Make It Essay Example for Free

Life Is What You Make It EssayPlay LIFE A marvellous journey, a gay song smells of roses nevertheless similarly pricking thorns. A fairy tale or an interesting report long yes this is life, take it, as it comes along. For a moment one is on success hunches next solar twenty-four hours may be in disaster trenches. Reaping today the crops of joy, tomorrow the land may be stark and dry. Surrounded now by madding crowd big gang of people but dont feel proud. Later he may be a mourning loner with none to make do in the life fair. Endowed with success, do not go too high flip of come across and good luck may defy.Also face the challenges with a smile as even the darkest clouds get out pass by. Life is continuity,no buttons to pause a school but unknown is level of class. It cons you with the problems but unknown in it are all the keys and solution. No absolutes or formulae for it are known change is what every day shown. Stocked with loads of energy piecemeal that fills it with enthusiasm and zeal. It has a few painful separations but also some strengthening bonds of relation. It has myriad colours and emotions sorrow and joy in equal sessions.SO Share, tending and love your dears no point in clinging on to your fears. For trifling grudges it is too short do not let the failures you to thwart. Never hurt others, choices might distract on the button sincerely follow your heart. Even amidst the agony never fret do the best with what you get. Do not lose hope, keep learning brisk skill march forward, life is a total thrill. conk out without inhibition as life is or so surprises and wonderment. Instead of logic trust your intuition comport daily goals be it health or relation. lodge mistakes, you have every right face it courageously with all the might. Do not envy but live uncluttered fall in love anytime u want with whatever. First learn to please and use the present life will be then much more pleasant. So just a small adage to say life is not hing but a stage play. Live every moment as it unfolds each day is a new chapter to be told. Inevitable, lively and uncertain this trek of life is really adventurous. Nothing ventured, nothing gained is what they say so go ahead and have your share of play

Monday, April 8, 2019

The Varied Value of Land Essay Example for Free

The Varied Value of Land quizLand represents a quintessential issue between Native Americans and Europeans. This has been true since Columbus discovery and the time of Spanish exploration, invasion, and settlement. During the latter periods of Native American recital we observe how English colonization and then the be buzz off and growth of the United States affects the Indian Nations. During this period we mark how two divergent societies value bestow differently and the disparities resulting in conflict and Indian subjugation. The English Colonial Settlements initially viewed the land similarly as the aborigine Indian inhabitants in a particular way. The land was the provider of sustenance to both. The early English Colonies want refuge in the land, which was unlike the early Spanish whose North American invasions sought to pillage wealth through lands traversed in the name of religious virtue. The original English Colonies had fled their own religious persecution and instead settle lands to build their society within its borders. The initial contention between Indians and the English Colonies grew from the fundamental differences in each civilizations ideal of a settlement and territory.Whether an Indian Nations included permanent towns or non the Tribes Bands where predominately hunter-gatherers throughout its territory. Furthermore and unlike Europeans these Indian People shared cosmology that place them as being one with the land. The European view of land was that of property and possession. As English Colonies and the new-fangledr on Americans further coveted Indian land to satisfy expansionism and economic enterprise we observe an unending misdemeanour on Indian resources.At first there was an aggressive unfettered Indian land taking into custody and then ongoing assaults on natural resources residing on the ever-dwindling Indian lands. The stereotypes of American Indians as inferior beings with especial(a) intellect, or bloodthirst y warriors, or lacking acceptable morals initially justified Colonial expansionism chthonian pretense of ordained religiosity. Indian resistance to relentless encroachment was often confronted with rebellion and the question of sovereignty was debated.The establishment of the United States and the subsequent 1823 Supreme Court ruling of Johnson v.McIntosh made clear the government genuine that early Europeans had rights to all Indian lands by having discovered the lands. Having previously defeated the British and securing American liberty allowed the victors title be transferred to the United States. It is from this point that Conquest by Law guides the history of land possession between Native Americans and Americans. This conquest gained popular social acceptance by the mid(prenominal) 19th Century as American society adopted the political decree that it was Manifest luck to encompass the continent.The national conquest gained a legal endorsement to em position government sepa rate Indian Nations from their land as assured in 1831 by the Supreme Courts Cherokee Nation v. atomic number 31 ruling that minimized Indian sovereignty to that of being a dominated people at top hat classified as dependents of their United States government guardian. In 1832 the Worcester v. Georgia ruling held that the aforementioned Cherokee treaties and the Trade and colloquy Acts passed since 1790 did recognize Indian Nations as political entities with authority within its borders.It now excluded States from having any jurisdictional power over Indian Nations. Though this ruling established Indians as autonomous from States it put in execution what would later become Congressional plenary power and it marks the beginning of federally exercised relocation to chip in American land hunger and later efforts to manage the Indian problem. The giganticly different views regarding land combined with systematic efforts to dismantle Indian culture and pushed towards Indian eradicat ion.Second to the impact of European introduced disease it would be habitat destruction and alteration to natural Indian environments that battled Indian Nations and drove them close to extinction. more than so than overuse of natural resources it was the onset of the land being fenced and parceled which relegated Indian Nations to immobile and economically piteous and spiritually bankrupt people faced with generational social disintegration. The series of governmental polices both purposefully and seemingly inadvertently legalized this conquest.Some of the most damaging and consequential actions include the movement to reservations through the late 1800s. The reservation policy reversal known as the Allotment Act of 1887 pushed to assimilate Indians using land as the vehicle by requiring such parcels provide for the Indians as it did homesteaders without any regard to the traditional Indian land relationship. From the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 through the Termination poli cy and Relocation programs of the mid twentieth Century the importance of Indian land affinity was never validated and to do so would have required literal enforcement and complete adherence to treaties.The current era of Tribal Self-Determination beginning when the Indian Civil Rights Act enacted in 1968 does acknowledge Euro-American infringement on Indian lands. Government interventions and enforcement, whether or not serving in the best interest of sovereign Indian Nations, has not sought to return these Indian Nations to a state of a being a harmonious civilization that can be draw as a confederacy of tribes, bands, and familial clans pursuing their life cycle throughout a vast ecosystem. The Euro-American value of property and possession has prevailed.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

First World War Essay Example for Free

First World War EssayI flip focussed my monologue on the reference point of Sheila Birling. Her role in the fulfil was significant as it is coming from the point of view of a young, upper kinsfolk woman. Her nave views represent her role as an authoritative figure in society who has the ability to help Eva smith, but her selfishness and her egotistic manner contradicts the master(prenominal) theme running through out the evasive action of An Inspector Calls that one persons actions impact anothers and we all have a duty in helping people lower in the system. JB Priestley wrote the play in 1942 almost a retrospective time just before the First World War.Sheilas important role in the play was that she was able and had the power to get Eva sacked because of her position in society, whereas Eva, who was of a lower class than Sheila, was not able to stand up for herself because she did not have enough power. Sheila abuses her superior position in society for petty reasons of that Eva is prettier than her.I chose to write about her, as she is a very expendable character who has no firm reason or purpose in firing Eva Smith.When the inspector questions Sheila about the word-painting Sheila says You K wise it was me all the time, didnt you? By saying this Sheila opens herself up (explain) and seems to accept responsibility for her actions and is showing this to the inspector, rather than trying to go along the truth up with lies, or try to pass on the blame to others as some characters in the play do. Her character I think is important in the play, as I believe that sacerdotal was trying to demonstrate later on in the play that the youth could change.The setting of my monologue of Sheila alone and isolated symbolises her distance from what she was once in the play. The year now being 1916, four years gloomy the line, she has turned her back on the aristocratic life and is trying to dissolve into an unprivileged life.Her clothes are the deform of gr een and brown that shake off her previous character of wealth and affluence as to her new attempted classless(prenominal) status. Sheila has disconnected herself from the Birlings and perhaps is trying to punish herself by living the life that the Eva Smith once led.Sheilas job now includes working at homeless shelters and working for charities. Her language has become less energetic and fluent than it once was. I have however tried to include some of the phrases from the play it was a mean thing to do I tried to make use of punctuation and grammar to ready her feelings and emotions. In the monologue I have use ellipsis to show pauses, when she might be persuasion or reflecting on painful memories. Exclamation marks are used to get her point crossways that she is getting agitated and snappyTo the audience, I was trying to convey the ideas of Sheila being a changed woman. That she has come to authorise that status and power isnt everything. She can look past this now and look forw ard to a beaming future with her new baby and Gerald, her husband.I think the Play writers view on Sheila and all the characters from the play was that the younger generation can learn from their mistakes, and he directs strong criticism towards business manpower who are only interesting in making money and will never lean from their mistakes. Sheilas the second person to be questioned by the Inspector and her response to Evas end is the most caring and heartfelt. She is genuinely upset by the death of Eva.The play is set in 1912. The periods between 1910 and 1945 were a great period of social change. In 1912 was the year that the titanic set sail, the year that the Suffragette movement started campaigning for womens rights in society. The war being a main factor, affecting society greatly and it began the process of merging class boundaries. The upper class young men were sent to the front line as officers and where many of the great landed families of Edwardian Great Britain be gan to disappear.My general intention with this monologue was to understand the significant character of the young, impressionable Sheila Birling and how she is central to the key themes in the play and how the Inspector plays the social conscience on all the characters minds.By the close of the play, Sheila has come to sack that herself and her family have lied to each other, and also to the Inspector. She begins to see her whole life was a lie, the relationship she had with Gerald and lie to herself. She begins to see that she needs to start her life again with truth, starting with correcting her mistakes.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Conclusion According Essay Example for Free

Conclusion fit EssayThis is the hatred of another person by a person due to his status and the skin color. Racism has been a major issue in the United States and this has lead to hatred of gayy sight. Racism is specifically accomplished by the skin color that is how the pureness perceive the forthboding(a) people. The dark skin has been disrespected worldwide by the albumin people and this has brought approximately racial discrimination. Metraux A (1950) Racism is like a belief that another person is less than of a value than the person, the belief determines the person background d the power and also the color. Racism is something that as been inherited from the ahead front of our great grand p atomic number 18nts, that is according to the livid man they used to put the inkiness man into slavery because the ignominious man had no power everywhere the clean-living man, racism is something that is running into our consume lives and it is something that has been v ery difficult to overcome because it is said it is something that is in a culture of a person and it is inheritable.Scholars shoot been very much to know the roots of racism and to look upon the causes and ways in which h racism can be avoided but it is true to say that racism lives within a person and the wholly way to change racism is by fighting and changing of our knowledge knowledge towards a busy group of people or not looking at people according to at that place cause skin co lour.Wellman T (1993) The perception of the smutty men on politics, during this era of Richard Wright the dust coat men were the that people who were get worded in politics and not in social areas, the discolour men had the only power to be seen in politics and anything that take aimed leadership and this brought about the favoritism of the black on politics.The black men were inert and no where to be seen in anything that concerned politics or leadership, they were considered as people wh o could not lead and who had little knowledge or no knowledge of the way to politics, indeed the blank people made the decisions on matters that resulted to politics and social matters. Bernard L (1992) The black men had no right of being educated or receive any information according to Richard Wright, the Whites were only seen to be the people who were allowed to be educated, and mostly the black people were considered to grow up as slaves of the white people. consequently they never considered giving the white childhood any type of education because they new definitely that they give grow into slaves of the white, and in any case a black was considered educated in that respect was a definite place where they could be taken and given work but under the management of the white people, in that locationfrom no black person was seen as a leader or a manager of a company despite his educational background he had to be under the supervision of the white people. gum benjamin H (20 06)During this era the black men were perceived as people who grew up as criminals and in that respect main aim was to kill the white people, they were considered as poor people always in need and people who had no power over anything that is they were to work and be slaves under the strict supervision of the white people. Has this perception changed? The perception of the black by the white has partly changed muted there is the discrimination of the white by the black in the modern world meaning that racism is still a subject area to be discussed and how to overcome it.black people are now allowed in politics by the white people, but still there are number of white people who do not deal that black people can still lead they grant them as people who need strict supervision and in this case they film not be able to accept leadership by the black people. Black men have been freed from the times of slavery by the white people and the ordering has regarded racism as a discrimina tion term that is supposed to be changed, therefore considering the skin twine of the black as being helpful to the society.The culture has developed a very bad send off of the black people from the white perception it is accurate to say that the society looks upon its roots on the black perception they still discriminate the black on some of the current issues for example they still consider the black as criminals, drug addicts and abusers. Therefore it is true that racism is being fought but still there people who are still bound by there cultural perception and beliefs about the black.Stereotypes of African American are generalized about the behavior of African group or individual. These stereotypes developed in American culture since the colonial era and they have been used to portray the black men as naive irresponsible or careless, lazy, poor and violent. Therefore racism is all about the color, the black suit was developed in America to show the color development of the bl ack and how the black got discriminated simply be cause of there color.There was a book for children that was developed called Sambo, it also discriminated the black as people who were lazy and people who were irresponsible and it considered black to be slur. The book is about a boy who outwitted a number of tiger and the boy is considered to be black. The magic Negro also refereed the black people discrimination Negro was a disrespectful term that was used to call the black people. The mammy archetype referred the black people as slaves that are they were seen tying apron so that they can help the white both in there assigned work by the white people.Current survey has shown that the white are still discriminating the black people, for example research has shown that there is discrimination of the black by the white especially by the taxi drivers, they consider the white more than the black people showing that the white still grant the black people as people who are still poor. I n a police case survey has shown that the black people are much discriminated by the white policemen more than the way the white policeman will deal with a white person, this shows that racism is still press release on.Black people are still considered as criminal more than the white people there skin color which is black has made them be preserved as criminal more than the white people. Marvin J On current survey black people possess the ownership of being feared by other people because from there judgment of color they look like criminals and thugs, this has created a difference from the white people, who have been judged by there skin color as people who posses innocenceConclusion According to Richard Wright era black men perception was very negative, this shows that Racism is like a diseases that is within our own perception and in this ca se it should be healed, human being s were created in antithetic color that is there is the white and the black, and it is true to say that there is no need to judge a person according to the skin color.Having a white skin does not mean that power over everything was given to the whites, this has been developed over the years and this has lead to the disrespect and the misuse of the dark skin, there fore changing the perception about the black people over the white people is very difficult. Because racism is something that has been there since the colonial era and it is something that has been developing over and over the generations. Robber M(Ed) the stereotypes that were developed to mark the black man it is certainly that they are still continuing to mark the black man as still powerless up to this current world.It is very unfortunate to explain that the current world has not changed there conduct to the perception of racism especially when it comes to the dark skin, most leaders in the world have lead to the racism and minority of these leaders have been unable to fight, it is wise to change the people perception o n racism especially when dealing with the skin color. People have difference by there own skin color but this does not mean that one skin color is excellent to the other there fore it is good for the world to come to an end and fight racism on skin color.Work cited Metraux A (1950) United Nations Economic and Security Council Statement by Experts on problems of lam in American Anthropologist Wellman T (1993) portraits of white Racism. New York, NY Cambridge University Press Bernard L (1992) Race and Slavery in the Middle East an historical enquiry. Oxford University Press Benjamin H (2006) THE invention of racism in classic antiquity, Princeton University press Marvin J the myth of the black man on race, sex, and suspicion Robber M and Andrew R, the black image in the white image

Friday, April 5, 2019

Non-discrimination GATT Law

Non-discrimi solid ground GATT LawNon-discrimination is a cornerst whizz of GATT law IntroductionThe General Agreement on Tariffs and hatful is a conformity to which the U.S. and m for sepa rankly one opposite countries be signatories. Its purpose is to bountiful inter field of study cope and reduce tariffs. GATT has been revised several sequences each revision is c alone(a)ed a round. The latest is the Uruguay expand of GATT requires signatories to comfort intellectual property and provide similar safeguard of intellectual property featureed by nationals and hostileers. attachment by the U.S. to GATT has brought about numerous changes to the U.S. Patent System that brings U.S. overt law into closer harmony with the patent systems of another(prenominal) countries. (Oppedahl Patent Law Firm LLC, 1993).The GATT established mickle principles that continue to be utilise instantly. The or so important cunning principle was non-discrimination with regard to the interc ession of trade in goods among countries. hold 1 of the GATT, evokes that whatever advantage given by a contracting crack upy to a product of a nonher kingdom, essential be extended uncondition every last(predicate)y to a resembling product of all other contracting parties. The to a higher(prenominal) place condition is the about favoured nation principle. A second rule of non-discrimination is national manipulation, the principle that imported and home(prenominal) goods should be treated equally. Although non-discrimination is a cornerstone of the GATT, nearly exceptions argon allowed. For example, custom unions, free-trade areas, and supererogatory intercession for ontogeny countries are permitted. (Fergusson, 2007).Another principle is the open and fair application of all trade barriers. Tariffs were the most putting surface and visible form of trade barrier at the time the GATT was established. (Fergusson, 2007). Tariffs are bound or driven at maximum levels, and not to increase above the negotiated level. In world(a), quantitative re setions such as quotas were not allowed, since tariffs were much easier to identify and to eventually reduce.The paper will focus on the most favoured principles and the national word principles. Studies and researches will be presented to evaluate the cornerstone of GATT law which is non-discrimination.Definition of TermsGATT General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeLike Products or Likeness having the same characteristics. The term applies to the products of different countries being exported and imported. The purpose of delineate Like Products is to create a criterion by which likeness to be measured. One must set forth the individual criteria with some care, and after that it is possible to talk about degrees of likeness within the boundaries of those criteria or characteristics. distinction in economic, the definition is less favourable discussion of goods from one foreign country vis a vis the goods of another(prenominal) foreign country.Brief History of GATT LawAfter World War II a new-sprung(prenominal) order came in about trading. The Breton forest Conference1 in 1944, created the International Monetary Fund2 nd the World edge for economic restructuring and development in Western Europe. The General Agreement on Trade and Tariff was created at the first session of the Preparatory Committee of UN Conference on Trade and Employment in 1946. (Williams, 2006). The GATTs initial purpose was to negotiate tariff concessions among members and to establish a code of conduct and procedures for the resolution of trade disputes by negotiation. Successive negotiations (called rounds) have also focussed on the code of conduct for no tariff barriers. The GATT was founded on the principles of non discrimination and two-sidedism in international trade. Non discrimination is expressed via unconditional virtually Favoured Nation status for all contracting parties. By this convention if the tariff on imports from one country is decreased, the tariff on all imports of the same goods from other GATT members must be reduced. (Williams, 2006).The debacle of the 1930s led to a reassessment, realignment and restructuring of the world economy. The end of the reassessment was that tariff wars were destructive to all parties, it should not be allowed to happen once more and a more than coherent framework was needed. (Williams, 2006). Conventional wisdom attributes much of the prosperity that occurred in the global economy since the1 officially known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was a gathering of delegates from 44 nations that met from July 1 to 22, 1944 in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to agree upon a series of new rules for the post-WWII international monetary system.2 oversee the worlds monetary and exchange rate systems1940s to the existence of the GATT. In particular, the GATT is lauded for the dramatic increase in world trade and (unti l the mid 1980s) the absence of any serious trade friction. Beginning in 1986, the Uruguay Round negotiations included the areas of tariffs, services and intellectual property. Over seven years of negotiations, the GATT agreements evolved into their current state. The Uruguay Round concluded in 1994 with numerous agreements to reduce trade barriers and institute more enforceable world trade rules. One of the major results of the Uruguay Round was the creation of the World Trade physical composition (WTO), which officially began operations on January 1, 1995. The WTO is a multilateral organization with the mandate to establish enforceable trade rules, to act as a dispute village body and to provide a forum for further negotiations into reducing trade barriers. According to the WTO website, there are 147 WTO member countries and observer countries. 3 Beginning in 2001 and proceeding done at least 2005, the capital of Qatar Agenda represents the current round of negotiations.The ar ound Favoured Nation Treatment (MFN)During the first years of International Trade, Most Favoured Nation status was usually used on a dual party, state to state basis. broadly bilateral, in the late 19th and early 20th century unilateral most favoured nation clauses were compel on Asian nations by the more powerful Western countries. One particular example of most favoured nation status is the Treaty of Nanking as part of the series of unequal 3the complete list of members is unattached in the WTO website.treaties. It was implemented in the aftermath of the First Opium War between Great Britain and China Qing Dynasty involving the Hong Kong islands.Most favoured nation relationships contrast with reciprocal relationships, since in reciprocal relationships a particular privilege granted by one party only extends to other parties who reciprocate that privilege, rather than to all parties with which it has a most favoured nation agreement.The Most Favoured Nation Treatment or intern al Trade Relation is an obligation to treat activities of a particular foreign country or its citizens at least as favourably as it treats the activities of any other country. MFN is the constitution of non-discrimination in trade that provides to all trading partners the same customs and tariff intercession given to other favoured nations. The phrase most favoured whitethornbe interpreted as especially favourable intercession but the concept of GATT is equal treatment to other party which is most favored. In the GATT the MFN obligation calls for each contracting party to grant to every other contracting party the most favourable treatment that it grants to any country with assess to imports and exports of products. (Abimbola, 2005).Article 1 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade states that with respect customs duties and charges of any kind imposed on or in connection with importation or exportation or imposed on the international transfer of payments for imports or e xports and with respect to the method of levying such duties and charges, and with respect to all rules and formalities in connection with importation and exportation and with respect to all matters referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article III, any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by any contracting party to any product originating in or destined for any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to other like product originating in or destined for the territories of all other contracting parties. This clause speaks of MFN treatments fro like products. A 1982 GATT panel found in favour of brazil nut that Spain had not lived up to GATT MFN obligation when it subdivided its customs classification of coffee and applied a much higher duty on those types of coffee imported from Brazil. The panel stated that the coffees were so nearly the same that they were like products, and that this must be treated non discriminatorily even though no tariffs we re binding by Spain on the product.GATT Article XIII stipulates that quantitative restrictions or tariff quotas on any product must be administered in a non-discriminatory fashion regarding like products, and that in administering import restrictions and tariff quotas, WTO Members shall aim to allocate shares close to that which capability be expected in their absence. Article XIII provides for most-favoured-nation treatment in the administration of quantitative restrictions, and supplements the disciplines downstairs Article I.The MFN principle has been expanded and it includes not only importation and exportation of gods but it also includes foreign investments and trade in services. (Abimbola,2005). In bilaterally symmetrical Investment Treaties4 (BIT) over 1800 BITs (Abimbola, 2005) were compared with about 500 only a decade ago. In the treaties 4 the aspect of foreign investments can be found in BIT. each state generally initiates to admit, in accordance with its laws and r egulations, investments from other state. Also in the treaties are the Covered Investment, it pledge not only national treatment, but also most favoured nation (MFN) treatment. The BIT also undertake to allow the investor the free transfer abroad of capital, profits and other sums that are related to the investment. It prohibits the expropriation of investments except in the public interest and against prompt, adequate and effective compensation. (Stevens, 2001).Exceptions to the Most Favoured Nation RuleThere are some exceptions to the Most Favoured Nation rule, among them are as followsa) Regional Integration (GATT Article XXIV).Regional integration liberalizes trade among countries within the region, while allowing trade barriers with countries outside the region. GATT Article XXIV provides that regional integration may be allowed as an exception to the Most Favoured Nation rule only if the following conditions are met. First, tariffs and other barriers to trade must be eliminat ed with respect to substantially all trade within the region. Second, the tariffs and other barriers to trade applied to outside countries must not be higher or more restrictive than they were prior to mental institution of regional integration. Regional integration has a vast impact on the world economy today and is the subject of frequent debate in a variety of forums, including the WTO Committee on Regional Trade Agreements.b) Generalized System of PreferencesThe Generalized System of Preferences or GSP is a system that grants products originating in ontogeny countries begin tariff rates than those normally enjoyed under Most Favoured Nation status as a special measure granted to growth countries in order to increase their export earnings and promote their development.c) Non- covering of Multilateral Trade Agreements between Particular Member States (WTO Article XIII)The Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization provides that this Agreement and the Multil ateral Trade Agreement in Annexes 1 and 2 shall not apply as between any Member and any other Member, when either of the following conditions are met a) at the time the WTO went into force, Article XXXV of GATT 1947 had been invoked earlier and was effective as between original Members of the WTO which were contracting parties to GATT 1947. b) Between a Member and another Member which has acceded under Article XII only if the Member not accept to the application has so notified the Ministerial Conference before the approval of the agreement on the terms of admittance by the Ministerial Conference. d) Other Exceptions Other exceptions to the Most-Favoured-Nation principle include Article XXIV3 regarding line traffic with adjacent countries, and Article I2 regarding historical preferences which were in force at the signing of the GATT. General exceptions to the GATT that may be applied to the Most-Favoured-Nation principle include Article XX regarding General Exceptions for measure s unavoidable to protect public morals, life and health, etc., and Article XXI regarding Security Exceptions. It is also possible to obtain a drop by the waysider to constitute an exception to the Most-Favoured-Nation principle. Under WTO Article IX3, countries may, with the agreement of other contracting parties, waive their obligations under the agreement. home(a) Treatment Principle National treatment stands alongside MFN treatment as one of the central principles of the WTO Agreement. Under the national treatment rule, the members must not accord discriminatory appropriate treatment between imports and like interior(prenominal) products. GATT Article III requires that WTO members provide national treatment to all other members. Article III1 stipulates the general principle that members must not apply internal taxes or other internal charges, laws, regulations and requirements affecting imported or nationalated products so as to afford protection to domestic production. In r elation to internal taxes or other internal charges, Article III2 stipulates that WTO standards shall not apply standards higher than those imposed on domestic products between imported goods and like domestic goods, or between imported goods and a directly competitive and substitutable product. With regards to article III4 provides that member shall accord imported products treatment no less favourable than that accorded to like products of national origin.National treatment is a principle in customary international law vital to many treaty regimes. In National treatment, if a particular right, benefit or privilege is granted by a state to its own citizen, then it must be also granted to the citizen of other states while they are in the country. It is stated in the international agreements that a state must provide equal treatment to those citizen of other states that are participating in the agreement.Exceptions to National Treatment Rule Although National Treatment is a basic pri nciple, GATT still provides exceptions as followsGovernment Procurement GATT article III8 a) permits brasss to purchase domestic products preferentially, making presidency procurement one of the exceptions to the national treatment rule. This exception is permitted because WTO members recognize the role of government procurement in national policy. objet dart the GATT made government procurement an exception to the national treatment rule, the Agreement on Government Procurement resulting from the Uruguay Round mandates signatories to offer national treatment in their government procurement. The national treatment rule applies only between those who have acceded to the Agreement on Government Procurement, and for others, the conventional exception is still in force.Domestic Subsidies GATT Article III8 (b) allows for the payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers as an exception to the national treatment rule, under the condition that it is not in violation of other p urvey in Article III and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing measures. The reason for this exception is that subsidies are acknowledge to be an effective policy tool, and is recognized to be basically within the latitude of domestic policy authorities. However, because subsidies may have a negative effect on trade, the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures imposes strict disciplines on the use of subsidies.GATT Articles XVIIIC Members in the early stages of development can raise their standard of reinforcement by promoting the establishment of baby industries, but this may require government support and the goal may not be realistically attainable with measures that conform to the GATT. In such cases, countries can use the provisions of GATT Article XVIIIC to notify WTO members and initiate consultations. After the consultations are completed under certain(prenominal) restrictions, these countries are then allowed to take measures that are inconsistent with GATT provisions excluding Articles, I, II and XIII. The GATT article XVIIIC procedure allows both border measures and violations of the national treatment obligations in order to promote domestic infant industries.Other Exceptions to National Treatment Exceptions peculiar to national treatment include the exception on hide quotas of cinematographic films under Article III10 and Article IV. The provisions of GATT Article XX on general exceptions, Article XXI on security exceptions and WTO Article IX on waivers also apply to the national treatment rule.Problems on Trade Policies and MeasuresNational treatment as well as MFN is invoked in WTO disputes. National treatment principle is usually invoked in conjunction with other provisions regarding MFN, quantitative restrictions, TRIMs and standards and conformity assessment. Among the countries that are having problems in trades are the United States, Korea, Indonesia and Brazil.Conclusion Under the WTO agreements, countries cannot nor mally discriminate between their trading partners. consecrate someone a special favour (such as a lower customs duty rate for one of their products) and you have to do the same for all other WTO members.Most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment. It is so important that it is the first article of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which governs trade in goods. MFN is also a priority in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) (Article 2) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual place Rights (TRIPS), although in each agreement the principle is handled slightly differently. Together, those three agreements cover all three master(prenominal) areas of trade handled by the WTO (World Trade Organization).Some exceptions are allowed. For example, countries can set up a free trade agreement that applies only to goods traded within the group discriminating against goods from outside. Or they can give developing countries special access to their market s. Or a country can raise barriers against products that are considered to be traded below the belt from specific countries. And in services, countries are allowed, in limited circumstances, to discriminate. But the agreements only permit these exceptions under strict conditions. In general, MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partners whether risque or poor, weak or strong.2. National treatment Treating foreigners and local anaesthetics equally. Imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally at least after the foreign goods have entered the market. The same should apply to foreign and domestic services, and to foreign and local trademarks, copyrights and patents. This principle of national treatment (giving others the same treatment as ones own nationals) is also found in all the three main WTO agreements (Article 3 of GATT, Article 17 of GATS and Art icle 3 of TRIPS), although once again the principle is handled slightly differently in each of these.National treatment only applies once a product, service or item of intellectual property has entered the market. Therefore, charging customs duty on an import is not a violation of national treatment even if locally-produced products are not charged an equivalent tax.While this is generally viewed as a desirable principle, in custom it conversely means that a state can deprive foreigners of anything of which it deprives its own citizens. An opposing principle calls for an international minimum standard of justice (a sort out of basic due process) that would provide a base floor for the protection of rights and of access to judicial process. The contravene between national treatment and minimum standards has mainly played out between industrialized and developing nations, in the context of expropriations. Many developing nations, having the power to take control over the property of their own citizens, wished to exercise it over the property of aliens as well.Though support for national treatment was expressed in several controversial (and legally nonbinding) United Nations General Assembly resolutions, the issue of expropriations is almost universally handled through treaties with other states and contracts with private entities, rather than through reliance upon international custom.National treatment is an integral part of many World Trade Organization agreements.ReferenceAbimbola, FO., 2005, The Most Favoured Nation Principle http//primesolicitors.com/papers/website_resource_3.pdf?PHPSESSID=0fb5d787e50d5e25a3253641c6fe4405http//www.wto.org/ incline/docs_e/legal_e/legal_e.htmGATT94Fergusson, I. May 2007 CRS Report for Congress- The World Trade Organization Williams, M. A, 2006 Brief History of GATT and NAFTA Womens Alternative Economic Network, http//www.greens.org/s-r/06/06-15.htmlThe Bretton Woods Conference, 1944 http//www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/wwii/986 81.htmhttp//www.law.duke.edu/lib/researchguides/gatt.htmlhttp//www.worldtradelaw.net/articles/hudeclikeproduct.pdfhttp//www.law.columbia.edu/library/Research_Guides/internat_law/trade_guidegeneral_introStevens, M., September, 2001, Experience in Arbitrations under the ICSID Rules pursuant to Bilateral Investment Treaties, Vol. 29, No. 8 Page 377.Chapter 2 National Treatment Principle http//www.meti.go.jp/english/ proclaim/downloadfiles/gCT0002e.pdf