Saturday, August 31, 2019
I am going to speak about the great Indian freedom fighter Ã¢â¬ËKappalottiya TamilianÃ¢â¬â¢ V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. He popularly known by his initials V.O.C was one of the most prominent lawyers in 19th century British India. Chidambaram PillaiÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellious attitude and his courage to act against the British government, the English stripped the title of barrister associated with his name. It was his brave nature that won V.O.C the name Ã¢â¬ËKappalottiya TamilianÃ¢â¬â¢ in Tamil Nadu, which translates to Ã¢â¬ËThe Tamil HelmsmanÃ¢â¬â¢ in English. V.O.Chidambaram Pillai was born on 5 September 1872 in Ottapidaram, Tuticorin district of Tamil NaduState of India, the eldest son of lawyer Olaganathan Pillai and Paramayee Ammal. V. O. Chidambaram Pillai enrolled in schools in his native Ottapidaram and nearby Tirunelveli. V.O.C started working in the Ottapidaram district administrative office after the end of his school education. It was only a few years later that he enrolled in law school and completed law studies to become a lawyer like his father Olaganathan Pillai. V. O. Chidambaram Pillai entered into active politics in the year 1905 by becoming a member of the Indian National Congress. The Swadeshi movement in India was already at its hilt during this time and leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak were trying their best to put an end to British Imperial coercion of trade. After joining the Indian National Congress, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai wholeheartedly immersed himself into Swadeshi work to secure independence for India. Part of his Swadeshi work was to put an end to the monopoly of British shipping in the coasts of Ceylon. Inspired by freedom fighter Ramakrishnananda, he set up the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company on November 12, 1906. V.O.CÃ¢â¬â¢s ships started regular services between Tuticorin and Colombo. His shipping company was not only a commercial venture, it was also the first comprehensive shipping service set up by an Indian in British India. V O Chidambaram Pillai was the author of a couple of novels; he translated several James Allen works in Tamil and made compilations of important Tamil works like the Thirukural and the Tolkappiam. V O Chidambaram Pillai spent such an impoverished lifestyle after he was released from prison that Justice Wallace who sentenced V O C to prison restored his bar license. But V O C was never successful in repaying his debts and lived in poverty till the end of his life on November 18, 1936. V O Chidambaram Pillai breathed his last at the Indian National Congress office in Tuticorin. Vallinayagam Olaganathan Chidambaram Pillai is remembered as one of the most important figures in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle for independence. He is much loved and celebrated in the Tamil Nadu society till today.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Bunker gear or turnout gear is the protective clothing used by a firefighter in fighting fires and during rescue operations. This gear is called turnouts because when not being used, they are kept standing by to be put on swiftly by Ã¢â¬Ëturning out' the pants over the boots. It is a requirement for firefighters to be able to put on all of the gear in no time, and in this set up, all they have to do is to step into the boots and pull the pants up. This solidly insulated gear is worn to shield the firefighter's body from the extreme heat of a fire.Approximately, structural turnouts will break down at 650Ã °C (1200Ã °F). A full turnout gear may weigh more or less 30kg aside from other extra tools to be carried. It is consisted of Ã¢â¬Å"a coat, pants and suspenders, leather or rubber waterproof boots, a hood, a strong helmet with eye protection, gloves, a belt, and SCBA (Self Contained Breathing Apparatus)Ã¢â¬ (www. sccfd. org). Turnout pants protects the lower part of the firef ighter's body. It is made of fire-resistant materials and they are easy to put on with Velcro and snaps.Turnout pants have side pockets for tools, gloves, and other necessary equipment. In order for the firefighters to be seen at nigh, these pants also have reflective stripes on the bottom. Turnout coat's outside liner is made of exclusive fire resistant fabrics. The coat has various liners for extra protection. One of these liners acts as a moisture barrier, it prevents outside moisture to reach the firefighter. Another part of the liner protects firefighters from the exposure to thermal heat. Pockets are also available for extra equipment such as gloves, radio, wrenches and other tools.Around its neck is a Nomex hood. Except for the face, it covers practically the entire head of the firefighter. The turnout boots are made of rubber. Aside from steel to covering, these have a steel shank in sole to protect firefighters from sharp or pointed objects. In order to be put on quickly, t hese boots have handles at the top. Wearing of this protective gear is a requirement for all firefighters approaching a seat of the fire or entering a hazardous area as stated in the NFPA 1971 Code or the Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting.Looking back in history, firefighters' garment was consisted of a cotton or wool shirt, heavy wool trousers, and a heavy wool tunic, which was sometimes worn over with rubber slickers. Wool was used because of its ability to protect a firefighter from heat and cold, and also because of its resistance to mild flame and water. Their gloves were the traditional leather gloves for laborers. It was only after the World War II when the standards for firefighter protective gears were issued by a number of organizations like the National Fire Protection Association or the NFPA.According to the NFPA 1971 Standard on Protective Clothing for Structural Firefighting, turnout gears must be composed of three layers: the outer layer must be made fr om flame-resistant fabric Ã¢â¬Å"that would not be destroyed through charring, separating, or melting when exposed to 500Ã °F for a five-minute period;Ã¢â¬ the second layer must Ã¢â¬Å"prevent moisture from penetrating through to the wearer;Ã¢â¬ and the third layer must Ã¢â¬Å"provide thermal insulation from radiant, conducted, and convective heatÃ¢â¬ (http://www. pbs. org). Firefighters' gloves should also be resistant to heat, flame, liquids, vapor, and sharp objects.The boots should also withstand flame, puncture, heat, electrical current, and abrasion. Further advancements in firefighters' turnout materials came up during the 80s. The 500Ã °F temperature resistance limit of the outer shell was raised to around 1,200Ã °F. The other layer also allowed the firefighters to Ã¢â¬Å"release moisture from inside the gear,Ã¢â¬ and the material used was a fire-resistant fabric. Being self-extinguishing, this material will not continue to burn once it is out of contact with a fire. Bunker gears are made out of synthetic fibers such as Aramid and Polybenzimidazoles (PBI).These synthetic fibers are polymers. A polymer is a substance with high molecular weight made up of a large number of smaller molecules. These molecules, called monomers, react together in hundreds, or even millions of times. The properties of the polymers are determined by the molecular shape variations that resulted from the reactions. These could be in the form of long, straight chains or branched. It is through their average molecular weight that their sizes are expressed. Polymers with higher molecular weights have the higher strength. They also usually have high melting or boiling points.Filaments made of synthetic polymer fibers have excellent strength because these fibers can be prepared with regular structures that allow the chains to pack together tightly. Another advantage of synthetic polymers is that they are stronger and much lighter than steel, making them the choice for bunker gears and bullet proof vests. Aramids are synthetic polyamides, a class of polymer for textile fibers. It has a carbon-based backbone which contains aromatic rings. Fabrics made of aramids are strong and flame resistant even at extreme temperatures because of the stability of the fiber's aromatic structures and their conjugated amide linkages.Polyamides are manufactured through step-growth polymerization. In this process, Ã¢â¬Å"monomers with two reactive ends join to form dimers (two Ã¢â¬Å"partsÃ¢â¬ joined together), then Ã¢â¬Å"trimersÃ¢â¬ (three Ã¢â¬Å"partsÃ¢â¬ ), and so on. However, since each of the newly formed oligomers (short chains containing only a few parts) also has two reactive ends, they can join together; so a dimer and a trimer would form a pentamer (five repeating Ã¢â¬Å"partsÃ¢â¬ )Ã¢â¬ (www. fibersource. com). The aramid fibers, on the other hand, are produced through Wet Spinning process.The fiber-forming materials are dissolved in a solvent, which is usually hydrogen sulfate (H2SO4), and spun using a spinneret. Aside from firefighting gears, aramid fabrics are also useful for friction products such as brake pads, clutch pads or seals and gaskets, because synthetic materials made from this fabric does not ignite or melt. Aramid fibers are also flexible, lightweight, resistant to organic solvents and fuels, and good insulators of electricity. Aramids are more popularly known with the names Kevlar and Nomex. The blend of these two aramids is used in manufacturing turnout gears.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
In our present time , there are many speculation spoken by different people, regarding the implementation of the new Curriculum , K to 12. There are many question still hanging on ,Is it the solution to our poverty , underemployment and unemployment.? Does K to 12 curriculum basically enhance our students knowledge? Does this curriculum eliminates at lessen poverty in our country. Our DepEd Secretary, Bro. Armin A. Luistro, FSC, starting whenhe became an Education Secretary, He is trying to change the traditional way of teaching, trying to resolve different problem, control and motivates the teachers, students , parents and government officials to cooperate in order to help our students to be competitive enough. In his Declaration of State of Philippine Education, he emphasize the trend and issues in Education System in: a. Philippine Education is under in Chronic Illness b. Regression in Access c. Bureaucratic Melee d. Appropriations allotted I n Education e. On the need of Reform f. The Join Forces of 3 Agencies in Government. The DOLE, TESDA, and CHED. g. The Idea of EFA 2015 and Millennium Development Goals, 1. The Philippine Education is under in chronic illness He said that our country is under the chronic illness , it is because the system in our country is suffering from different crisis, not only come from economic problem, but most probably in political system. In this country, Our governmentalways change our curriculum from time to time, for them we must faced the reality and we must adapt the changes but theÃ mere fact is , they donÃ¢â¬â¢t even support that particular in terms of facilities, tools, books and other school materials, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why our curriculum is only a Trial-Error set up. Inother aspects the reason why we still in the last in terms of Education it is because of corruption and political problems. 2. Regression in Access The main problem in our country is the lengthof Basic Education in Elementary and Secondary, this is only 10 years, unlike to other country which is 12 years. This is the reason why Filipino did not get the appropriate job on other country, 3. Bureaucratic Melee In this case, we can say that the cultural aspects of the society are the big problem. Despite of financial and economic crisis happen in our country, they questioned some people or other non Ã¢â¬âgovernment organizations if school receive donations, For them it is a form of corruption ,but the reality is some government officials is the one who is the corrupt one. We must face the reality that government funds is not sufficient to support different schools thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we need support from other agencies. 4. Appropriations for Education Department of Budget and Management or DBM allocatesfund for a certain school whether it has autonomy or not. These budgets were divided depends on the numbers of enrollees per school. Government also allocates fund for the Teachers tools, equipments, lesson plan, and classrecords , salaries and bonuses and incentives. Education is free, according to the Deped Memorandum. They allocated fundsfor Education but the big problem is, the higher ranking person did not distributed that funds to different divisions, instead of they corrupt that funds. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why DepEdis number2 in Corruption 5. On the Need for Reform Our Educationsystem needs a reformation, in order to make our graduates be competitive enough. Reform will start on the top down to the lower ranking position. Reformation willlead us tothe better world, better society and better graduates. Reformation not only in Educational system but also in the society, most especially in our government presently. Reform in policies, avoid corruption, because new ideas, new curriculum, and helpus tobuild mind of a graduates professionally growth.
Museum of Islamic Art - Essay Example The Museum of Islamic Art, Doha Islamic art and culture goes back 1,400 years ago to the years of the Prophet through to the eras of the Caliphs and Ottoman Empire. Qatar has been known for the oil boom which led to massive and large scale construction works in the country in the past three decades. Many landmark buildings have been built within this period in strategic locations to maintain the unique features of the region. The Museum of Islamic Art (MIA) is located on the south end of the Doha bay and it is a major building located on the edge of the Doha harbor and it has unique and distinct features that makes it a might build that depicts Islamic arts in architecture, usage and construction. Project Initiation and Location The Museum for Islamic Art was designed by the architect, Ioeh Ming Pei who blended Islamic tradition and monumental modernism to create the structure (Ourousoff 31). The project was commenced in 2004 when the Qatari government announced the desire to build a major structure that will reflect Qatar's bid to become the cultural center of the Arab world (Skinner 1). Actual work and construction activities commenced in 2005 and this ultimately led to the completion of the project in 2006. The project reflected Qatar's quest to present itself as one of the most prosperous economies in the Islamic world with the highest gross domestic products per capita in the world (Skinner 1). This was reflected in the magnitude of the project and the resources committed to its completion. The location of the MIA in the city of Doha also makes it an extremely distinct work of engineering because it required a cross-functional role that involved marine engineers aside the normal construction site to ensure that the project remained within reasonable range. The project is located on a newly created Peninsular or man-made island that is protected by a seawall just off the harbor of Doha in the south of the city (Ourousoff 33). The project is meant to blend a set of different elements and present the Qatari nation and the Islamic world on an exceptional pedestal. First of all, the building involved an architecture that reflected elements of Medieval Arabic architecture that incorporated elements of palaces amongst great Arab leaders. Secondly, the building involved important and carefully calibrated to provide exhibitions for various categories of Islamic history and culture. This include the arrangement of exhibition spaces, galleries, library and an auditorium. The venue is meant to exhibit elements of various stages in Islamic history and will display works of art, numismatics, manuscripts and weapons. Socio-Cultural Elements of Qatar & the Islamic World it Depicts The Museum of Islamic Art was a project that was initiated under the auspices of Qatar's hereditary Al-Thani dynasty as an attempt to enhance Qatar's cultural status. To this end, the MIA was meant to bring together the relics, audience and artists to develop the cultural systems and structures of the country for the future (Hudson para 6). Upon deciding to build the museum, the Qatari Museum Authority, headed by Sheikha Mayassa al-Thani called upon the then 86-year old IM Pei to draw the blueprints and architectural plan for the museum (Hudson para 2). The Chinese-American IM Pei was called for retirement to assist in drawing
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Betrayal - Essay Example Focusing on the theme of devotion and betrayal, William Shakespeare chose to deploy it in several story arcs at once, varying it in scale. Betrayal as a recurring theme is present throughout the play, being a thread that connects characters and events incorporated in it. Lear, the elderly king of Britain, is about to resign, and thus wants to pass the prosperous kingdom to one of his daughters who loves him most. Whereas the two elder daughters, Goneril and Regan, choose to flatter and feast the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ears with honey words, the youngest daughter, Cordelia, preferred to express love to her father decently and modestly insisting that love must be proved with deeds, not with pleasing words: Ã¢â¬Å"I am sure my lovesÃ more richer than my tongueÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare). The standpoint of the youngest daughter infuriated Lear who loved her most and expected to hear more than he actually did and made him divide the kingdom between Goneril and Regan outcasting Cordelia. This was the turning point that triggered numerous consequences and tragic losses. However, there is a secondary storyline focusing on the tragedy of the earl Gloucester and his sons Ã¢â¬â Edgar and Edmund. Being a bastard and having morbid ambitions for respectable position and power in Britain, Edmund ventured upon the blatant deception against his father and brother trying to sow discord between them and gain GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s favor. The overwhelming lies on the side of Goneril, Regand and Edmund results in awful betrayal and deaths. At the same time, it can be seen that the motif of betrayal and its consequences is traced in different situations and levels of narration Ã¢â¬â from as narrow as a separate family to as wide scale as national affairs. Shakespeare demonstrates the fruits of wickedness Ã¢â¬Å"in both the familial and political realmsÃ¢â¬âhere, brothers betray brothers and
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Education - Essay Example In addition, US government supports education to reduce illiteracy, criminal activities, and drug abuse behaviours that are prevalent with the uneducated. This paper discusses education in the US as a social issue. The two theories quoted in literature trying to explain or predict studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance include needs theory and expectancy theory. According to Geiger and Coopers, Ã¢â¬Å"expectancy theory suggests that motivation to act is a combination of the perceived attractiveness of future outcomes and the likelihood oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions will lead to these outcomesÃ¢â¬ (Geiger and Coopers 1995). This means that to motivate a student to work hard depends on their perceptions of the academic performance and in their beliefs that after hard work they will yield great results. The second traditional that attempt to explain academic success suggests that motivating students to perform depends on their intrinsic individual needs. Individual studentÃ¢â¬â¢s motivational behavio ur is influenced by their desire to achieve, to dominate, to belong to a certain affiliation, or autonomy. The two theories differ in that motivation from students may come from some needs in the subconscious mind or by a conscious choice. A concern on whether educational opportunities are equal to all lingers many minds. According to Collins, Ã¢â¬Å"Social reproduction theory argues that schools are not institutions of equal opportunity but mechanisms for perpetuating social inequalitiesÃ¢â¬ (Collins 2009). Researchers have associated three perspectives in the analysis of the emergence and development of social reproduction, which include economic, cultural, and linguistic. Despite different analysis to understand how social inequality results from the interplay of schools, classrooms, and the wider society, no solution exists yet (Collins 2009). Conflict theory believes that the society is full of a community with different values and social rewards. It views relations in socie ty as based on exploitation, oppression, domination, and subordination. Teachers equally behave in the same manner whereby they use traditional teaching curriculum and expect students to get some support from their parents in the evenings but this is not normally the case. The state gauge knowledge passed to its students via the curriculum, which in most cases does not make sense to the students. Structural functionalism views institutions of education as gateways that keep order and meaning to a society. Through socialization, the society produces citizens after equipping them with knowledge, attitudes and values the need. These theories together with political arithmetic helps one understand the structural mechanism in educational inequalities. Implicitly, schools have central role of assisting immigrants in adapting to the new lives they find themselves. This is where immigrant students start their integration with working life as they share the same skills with the native studen ts. However, this is not the case in America since equality in schooling inputs is no longer enough to assess equity in education. After accounting for the social-economic factors of the parents of the students, PISA mathematical scale discovered that immigrants still rage behind by 30 score points to their native counterparts (Schleicher 2006). Researchers shows that immigrant students attend schools with poor learning conditions such as student-teacher ratio and that they lack in other
Monday, August 26, 2019
Describe an animal that people are working to protect. Explain why it should be protected - Essay Example Currently, scientists are estimating that more than 2000 animals are at a risk of extinction with African elephants and rhinos being at the top of the list. Most recent findings have shown that about 20 percent of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s elephants could be killed in the next one decade if proper and swift measures are not taken (Faure para3-8). The main cause of the dramatic reduction in the population of African elephants is illegal poaching and human encroachment to the animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ habitats. According to a report that was released by the Elephant Summit in Botswana as well as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, more than 22,000 elephants were illegally killed across Africa in 2012 alone, which was a reduction from the previous year where more than 25,000 elephants had been killed. Illegal poaching was found to be more acute in the Central and Eastern African regions where estimated poaching rate was reported to be twice the continental average. Poachers use crooked methods in killing this endangered species such as shooting the animals as well as poisoning them. For instance, in September 2013 cyanide was used to kill more than 300 elephants in ZimbabweÃ¢â¬â¢s Hwange National Park and led to what was termed as the Ã¢â¬Å"worst single massacre in southern Africa for 25 years.Ã¢â¬ This are worrying figures considering the fact the continent has about 500,000 elephants and they can easily be depleted in the next one decade if the current poaching rate is not curbed. The rate of poaching had initially dropped though the exercise has started to boom at an alarming rate. In the past century, African elephants were about to get depleted through illegal poaching whereby an estimated 100,000 elephants were being killed yearly and up to 80% of herds were lost in some regions. In Kenya for instance, the population plummeted by 85% between 1973
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Leadership and Organisational Behaviour - Essay Example According to the discussionÃ Schmidt is in the practice of listing down his best employees and communicate with them in a personal manner to encourage them to perform better. There are also numerous systems in the organization to reward top performing employees such as stock option, financial incentives, etc. He makes his employees feel that they are the owners of their work and to facilitate such an environment he provided a broad definition of the goals of the company.This paper outlines thatÃ Schmidt leaves the implementation part of achieving the goals of the organization entirely to his employees. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t prefer to interfere in this regard. Schmidt reinforced the entire system of his organization such that the hierarchies of the organization do not get in the way of employees with regard to their performance. Google Inc is in the practice of following a Ã¢â¬Å"distributed leadershipÃ¢â¬ culture for its employees. Distributed leadership culture states that people living in the environment are primarily responsible and also accountable for group and personal development. Team work is the best alternative to find the path that is best suited for an organization. It is concerned about the fact that each member of an organization must take a different role and that there must be demonstration of collective responsibility in this regard.Ã Google Inc expects its employees to share their expertise and ideas in this ever changing environment to achieve constant growth.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Equity And the Law of Trust - Essay Example An express trust is created by the settlorÃ¢â¬â¢s conveyance of property by will or deed to a party, for this property to be held in trust for others. Creation of a trust does not require consideration. Written and formal documents are needed only for Trusts of real estate as required by the Statute of Frauds. A resulting trust is created when the intention is inferred or presumed, by a court of equity, from the terms of disposition of the property. Finally, a constructive trust results when a court of equity compels the person having legal title, to hold it for the benefit of another. A person guilty of fraudulent acquisition of title to property will be deemed by the court to be the trustee and will be ordered to hand over the property to the defrauded party. (Trust Ã¢â¬â property law-, n.d). Trusts are set up for the joint ownership of the matrimonial home, reduce amount of tax payable, provide for infants, the elderly or mentally disordered and to protect people from their vices. Sometimes the public donates money in response to some disaster or crisis and the law has to formulate a mechanism to administer the resulting fund. (Equity and the law of Trusts, n.d). In the present day world, the role of Trusts has assumed great significance. Trusts minimize estate taxes or help people who cannot manage their own assets for example minor children, disabled children or aged parents. Sometimes a trust is created to provide support and property management for a surviving spouse and minor children or for the educational purpose of children and grandchildren. Conditions of Revocable Trusts can be changed only during the lifetime of the settlor. This is beneficial for adapting to the changes taking place in tax and estate laws. Irrevocable Trusts cannot be changed, revoked or terminated once they are set up and do not provide for changes in the tax and estate laws. Some of the modern day varieties of Trusts are: Living Trusts or Trusts which are created and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Cognitive behaviour therapy- case study - Essay Example At the surface are the negative automatic thoughts (NAT), which are beliefs and assumptions stored in memory as schemas (Bartlet, 1932). NAT forms the basis of the classic Beck model of depression, which is based not only on NAT about oneself, and the world and the future, but also upon maladaptive assumptions and negative schemas (Beck, 1967). The underlying cause of anxiety is a distortion in processing information is connected with the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s overestimated concept of danger and the underestimated ability to cope (Beck, Emery & Greenberg, 1985). Activation of danger appraisals, in conjunction with physiological changes maintain different anxiety vicious circles (Simmons & Griffiths, 2009). Specific models of disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterized by the personÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to cope with chronic worry. Similarly, the Social Phobia Model emphasizes the fact that, in the cognition of the person suffering from social phobia, certain situat ions are associated with danger (Clark & Wells, 1995). CBT is goal-oriented, and it emphasizes collaboration and active participation (Westbrook et al., 2007). CBT teaches the client how to identify, evaluate and respond to his or her dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs. ... At the beginning of the session, she was avoiding eye contact by nervously adjusting her scarf, trying to cover red stains all over her chest and neck. I deliberately ignored this behavior, and focused on the therapy process, which helped her to relax. She became less fidgety and our conversation went fluently. Client biographical details and recent history: Sally is a 24-year-old female, who is single and working as a training officer. Sally describes her childhood as happy, however, there were events which may have significantly influenced her current life. Her parents divorced when she was eight. This confused her, but it did not affect her as much as it could have, because both parents were there for her. She has a close relationship with her mother, although she described her as overprotective and bossy. Since the age of seven, Sally was physical and psychologically bullied by other kids at her school. Because of this, she had problems adapting to school and struggled to fit in socially to school life. Because of this, she had to change schools twice. Sally continued her education at a university in Scotland. Her teenage life was also influenced by a few dramatic events. When she was sixteen, she had her first abortion. She described this as a relief, as both she and her boyfriend were about to start university. During the first year at the university, Sally had her first depressive episode. She described her first year at university as horrible. She was bullied by her flatmates, and she felt lonely and separated from her boyfriend and family. Sally felt under pressure, and struggled with university requirements. She perceives those
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Block Scheduling vs Periods Essay A small debate has always been discussed when talking about block scheduling and traditional class periods. Some people like the longer classes while others prefer the traditional six shorter class periods. Everyone has their own opinions about block scheduling. Block scheduling can be really helpful to high school students in many ways. Although, block scheduling is a longer time spent in one class, it should be mandatory in all high schools rather than traditional class periods. Block Scheduling is more like college classes, rather than traditional six period classes. There are many ways to schedule with using the block method. One option is the alternating block schedule. Classes meet each day for ninety minutes. Four classes meet on A days, and four meet on B days, with days of the week alternating as A or B. The second method is the semester block scheduling. This allows students to attend just four classes for ninety minutes each day for an entire semester. The following semester students enroll in another four classes. These two methods are the most like college classes. It is good for high school students to experience and get used to the longer time spent in classes to prepare them for college. Block scheduling allows students to take more subjects and cover more material in one class. High school students need to prepare for the future and get used to the way college classes are organized and with the block scheduling they are sure to do that. With the six traditional class periods students only have forty-five to sixty minutes in each class before the bell signals for the next. By the traditional six classes they stay in the same subject all year around. Block scheduling gives two more extra classes to take because of the extra time (Schroth). Many high school students are involved in extracurricular activities at the school they attend. By using the block method, teachers can get most of everything they had planned finished in one class allowing extra time to do class work and students will not have as much homework. Only having four classes cut down on homework rather than six classes all year around. Block scheduling allows teachers to teach less students and can have relationships and get to know each student very well. Students can get direct help from the instructor and can learn more easily (Ediger). This is good for at risk students because it gives them a chance to just focus on a few subjects each semester rather than all year long. In some schools, block scheduling allows students to take dual enrollment at their local community college. By doing this, high school students can get a head start on college classes if they are able (Childers). Many opportunities to help academics can come from the block scheduling method. Block Scheduling allows students who fail a subject the first semester, to retake it the second semester. Many schools have seen test scores increase (Wilson). While students have more time to do daily work instead of homework, teachers have more time for their planning period. It allows more time for more in class projects and individual work between students and the instructor. Many teachers have said that with block scheduling, more discipline problems have decreased. Because traditional scheduling requires changing classes six times a day, students get more chances to start trouble between those classes. With block scheduling youÃ¢â¬â¢re only changing three times and there is a less chance of problems between classes (Wilson). Block scheduling does have its disadvantages just like traditional scheduling. Since students will not be going to class daily, some subjects might require drill and practice to stay refreshed on a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s mind (Schroth). With classes being ninety minutes, students might get tired or bored with the subject they are in and ready to go to the next class. A bad instructor could cause students to not want to go to class for that long of a time. Block scheduling advantages outweighs its disadvantage. It prepares high school students for college. College classes are completely different than high school. Teachers have more time to prepare, teach and individually help each student in class. Discipline issues have decreased because of the less time spent in the hallways. The block method is great for all high schools and preparing students for the future.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Analysis of Retail Market Essay Larger businesses in retail are generally more profitable than smaller businesses with many of the largest businesses historically among the most profitable in the economy. The larger retailers in Australia would appear to have enjoyed better returns on capital than their overseas counterparts and have continued to do so since the global financial crisis. Growth in retail sales has been slow in recent years. While short term or cyclical factors have contributed to this slowdown, the growth of retail sales has experienced a long term slowdown due to changes in consumer buying habits. Consumers are choosing to spend a smaller share of their income on retail goods because over the recent past, they are saving more and they are spending greater shares of their expenditure on services such as finance, rent and education. Further, while there has been price deflation in some sub-categories of retail, overall, sales volumes have continued to grow. The level of productivity in the Australian retail industry is low compared to retail in other countries in Europe and North America. However, the growth rate of productivity in retail, over the past two decades, has been similar to the average rate for all industries in Australia. Retailers have achieved productivity growth by increasing the capital intensity of their operations, including through adopting information and communications technology. Furthermore, investments in big box retailing have also been a factor. These changes occurred earlier in the US, and since then, US retailers have continued to achieve productivity growth by improving management and operations to make more effective use of labour and capital. These opportunities appear yet to be fully realised by most Australian retailers. A snapshot of the retail industry Retailing makes a significant contribution to the economy The retail industry is one of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest employers. Currently, there are almost 140 000 retail businesses employing about 1. 2 million people or 10. 7 per cent of the total working population. Together, retail workers earn about $32 billion in wages and salaries each year, or 6 per cent of the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s total. The retail industry also makes a significant contribution to economic output, contributing $55 billion or over 4 per cent of GDP each year. However, it is a relatively small contributor to investment (table 3. 1). Table 3. 1 The contribution of Australian retail trade 2009-10a Retail trade Gross value added ($m) Employment (Ã¢â¬Ë000s) Wages and salaries ($m) Investment ($m) Capital stock ($m) Number of businesses (end 2008-09) a Includes motor vehicles parts and fuel retailing. Source: ABS (Australian System of National Accounts: gross fixed capital formation and capital stock, Cat. no. 5204. 0; Labour Force, Australia, Cat. no. 6291. 0, Counts of Australian Businesses, Cat. no. 8165. 0).
Factors Affecting Empathy: Theories Analysis Empathy can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"taking the role of the other and seeing the other from his or her internal frame of referenceÃ¢â¬ (Eagle Wolitzky, 2004, p. 217). In recent years, it has been one of the most popular topics in the field of psychology. Empathy is considered to be one of the most important skills in communication, connection and trusting others. To gain better understanding new studies concerning neuroscientific, developmental and social side of empathy were conducted. Empirical evidence showed that empathy is rather a multidimensional construct and can be divided into two concepts: cognitive empathy and affective (emotional) empathy. Cognitive empathy can be subdivided into perspective taking and fantasy as well as affective empathy can be subdivided into empathic concern and personal distress (Davis, 1983). However, as empathy is a quite complex process it has not been fully agreed whether cognitive and affective systems exist at all and if they do whether they interact or work as two separate systems. Despite all the contradictory and confusion concerning empathy it would be impossible to understand what regions of brain are active in the process of empathy, what is the mirror neurons purpose in this, how parenting and personal characteristics affect the development of empathy and how loneliness or personal distress influence empathy if the discipline of psychology didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay so much attention to this crucial process. As it was mentioned before, in the development of empathy parenting and attachment style can be crucial factors which determine how empathic a child will be in later life. Taylor et al. (Taylor, Eisenberg, Spinrad, Eggum, Sulik, 2013) conducted a study to examine how ego-resiliency, parental support of emotional expression and sensitivity to children needs affect development of empathy in children aged 18-84 months. Moreover, it was expected that increased empathy would have an impact on prosocial behaviour in later childhood. Sample of 242 children were used and it was found that encouragement to express emotions as well as ego-resiliency at 18 months predicts increased empathy at 24 months. Furthermore, researchers found that growth in empathy also increased prosocial behaviour at the 72/84 months. Nevertheless, it is important to mention that only reports were used in the study which makes it less accurate. Also, it is possible that genes have an impact on development of empathy and mother might transfer it to a child. That could explain why mothers who are more empathic, more sensitive and encourages expressing emotions have children who score higher results in empathy tests. Another study partly supporting the previous one was conducted in Netherlands and consisted only of 16-22 months old girls. Researchers examined parental sensitivity, attachment style and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ impact on empathic concern both at home and in the laboratory (Mark, IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, 2002). Van der Mark et al. (2002) found that empathy towards a mother increased from 16 to 22 months, however, empathic concern towards strangers decreased. Fearfully and insecurely attached girls found to be less empathic later on. Furthermore, this research found that sensitive parenting has no effect upon empathy. It contradicts the study mentioned above as well as a few other investigations which found that parenting is an important part of the development of empathy (Robinson et al ., 1994). The confusion might have appeared because of a sensitive development of empathy in this age group. It is important to remember that the study involved only girls and used quite narrow age group which prevents this research to be applied for a wider population. Taylor et al. (2013) in the previous study found that initially boys are less empathic; however, it increases with time and stabilizes in toddlerhood. Inconsistent finding and specific research sometimes can confuse and rise more questions rather than give answers. For this reason it is possible to find more articles supporting or disproving hypotheses. For instance, another study consisting 678 adolescents and their both parents were conducted in Belgium. Even though this research took a step further and examined older participants, it also took another perspective and looked at how perceived both parents need supportive parenting impacted emotional and cognitive empathy systems (Soenens, Miklikowska, Duriez, 2011) . Soenens et al. (2011) found that fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s need support with time affected perspective taking or in other words cognitive empathy in both, boys and girls. On the other hand, it was found that only girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ empathic concern (emotional empathy) were affected by motherÃ¢â¬â¢s need support. The research shows that supportive parenting is important for development of empathy. Furthermore, Soenens et al. (2011) emphasizes the importance to divide empathy into emotional and cognitive in order to understand better the origins of empathy. Yet, this study didnÃ¢â¬â¢t include how parents perceived their own parenting style or what people, who know the adolescents, think about their emphatic skills. After all, evidence suggests that sensitive, need supportive parenting, secure attachment and individual characteristics are of great importance to the development of empathy. Even though some finding are inconsistent and contradict the other ones it was proved more than once that p arenting has a huge impact on both, cognitive and emotional empathy. However, it is useful to consider neuroscientific part of empathy and how genes or brain injuries can affect development as well as different systems working in the process of empathy. The field of developmental psychology helped us to understand how important maternal and paternal authority can be but it is not the only area of psychology which improved our understanding of empathy. Another field, which must be introduced when it is talked about empathy, is neuropsychology. Different areas of brain, mirror neuron system are known to be activated in the process of empathy and have been studied by neuroscientists for quite a long time. Now we can tell why autistic people or those who are diagnosed with schizophrenia have difficulty understanding how another person feels. One study tried to examine what regions of brain are activated in self-orientation and orientation to others and how direct gaze affects empathy (Schulte-RÃ ¼ther, Markowitsch, Fink, Piefke, 2007). It was hypothesized that in the task of assigning emotions to yourself and to others Theory of Mind (ToM) mechanism would be activated as well as human Mirror Neuron System (hMNS), however they expected that different parts would be activated on different occasions (attributing emotions to yourself and attributing emotions to another person). Schulte-RÃ ¼ther et al. (2007) also assumed that direct ga ze into a person would trigger empathy. 26 subjects looked at pictures with other people either looking directly to them or looking away and had to tell what they think a person is feeling and what they think they are feeling. Schulte-RÃ ¼ther et al. (2007) using fMRI found that telling what you feel and what another feels activate brain regions related to emotional processing, hMNS and ToM mechanisms. Furthermore, researchers found that in both tasks BrocaÃ¢â¬â¢s area is activated which is extremely close to mirror neurons. However, human brain is very complex organ and several different areas can be responsible for the same function, so it is still unclear which areas are responsible for cognitive and which for affective empathy as well as how they communicate to each other. On the other hand, it is not the only research which tries to uncover neurological side of empathy. For instance, Shamay-Tsoory et al. (Shamay-Tsoory, Aharon-Peretz, Perry, 2009) carried out a research to determine whether emotional and cognitive empathy are two independent systems controlled by different neurological bases. 64 subjects with brain damage in two different brain regions participated in the study. Researchers found that inferior frontal gyrus cortice is responsible for emotional empathy and ventromedial prefrontal cortice, for cognitive empathy. Study results support the research mentioned before on the importance of BrocaÃ¢â¬â¢s area and. It was found that this area is most significant in emotional empathy and it also is essential element of hMNS. Shamay-Tsoory et al. (2009) also found Brodman area 10 (anterior prefrontal cortex) and 11(orbitofrontal area) to be the most crucial in cognitive empathy. Thus, emotional and cognitive empathy are two distinct systems controlled by different brain regions. Nevertheless, it is not clear if those two systems overlap in our brain. Both studies hold strong evidence of mirror neuron systemÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on emotional empathy. However, we cannot forget that there are neural networks and temporal poles involved into the process of empathy. Financial Ratio Calculations | Profitability Calculations Financial Ratio Calculations | Profitability Calculations Financial ratios are useful indicators of a firms performance and financial situation. Most ratios can be calculated from information provided by the financial statements. Financial ratios can be used to analyse trends and to compare the firms financials to those of other firms. Sometimes, ratio analysis can predict future bankruptcy of a business. As we can see the performance of Systems Integrated PLC is related to the areas of profitability, efficiency and liquidity. First of all, the profitability of a company is clearly shown through the Return on Capital Employed ratio (R.O.C.E) and the gross profit percentage, the second one is reduced from 2009 to 2010 but about the first we can say that is getting higher. Moreover, we have the gross profit margin ratio and we can see that year by year is getting lower and this is not good for our business .Profitability depends on the obsolescence/damage/theft, or even the under/overvaluation of stock. Also, it depends on the general fall or increase in selling price. Utility companies tend to have low R.O.C.E ratios because of the high investments in fixed assets. For example, a high R.O.C.E may be due to the fact that some firms are using old-aged assets which are almost fully depreciated. Liquidity 4) Acid Test = (Current Assets Inventors) / Current Liabilities = (1822 935) / 1313 = 0.67:1 5) Inventory Holding Period = (Average Inventory / Cost of Sales) * 365 = [(850 + 935) / 2] / 7540 = 43 days 6) Customer Collection Period = (Debtors / Sales) * 365 = (842 / 11178) * 365 = 27 days 7) Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities = 1822 / 1313 = 1.4:1 8) Suppliers Payment Period = (Suppliers / Purchases) * 365 = (1313 / 7625) * 365 = 63 days 9) Interest Cover = EBIT / Interest Expense = 1366 / 105 = 13 times Secondly, liquidity is mostly shown by the current ratio and the acid test ratio. A current ratio of 2.5:1 is considered to be adequate. In addition to this, a high current ratio indicates that the firm is tying up its resources in unproductive assets. Also, indicates slow moving stock and slow paying customers. The sufficiency of a current ratio depends on the composition of the current assets and how soon the short/long term obligations have to be settled. Also an acid test ratio of 1.1:1 is considered to be sufficient, too. The numerator of a liquidity ratio is part or all of current assets. Possibly the most common liquidity ratio is the current ratio . The problem with the current ratio as a liquidity ratio is that inventories, a current asset, may not be converted to cash for several months, while many current liabilities must be paid within 90 days. Thus a more conservative liquidity ratio is the acid test ratio. Efficiency 10) Fixed Assets usage = Net Sales / Fixed Assets = 11178 / 2832 = 3.9 times 11) Total Assets usage = Net Sales / Total Assets = 11178 / 4653.5 = 2.4 times Lastly, efficiency is another important fact in a company. It is combined in three periods: the customers collection period, the suppliers payment period and the inventory holding period. We can see that at the fixed assets usage ratio of System Integrated plc has increased from the 2.9 of the industry to 3.9 times. In the second ratio, the total asset usage, System Integrated plc has almost the same percentage with the industry and this is good news for our company because is a very good percentage. The fact that some firms holding period is obsolete and that they have a slow moving stock is completely because of the high inventory holding specific period. Although, these firms aim at reducing this ratio so they could be more efficient and productive. Accounting is the language of business and its numbers are pertinent convey financial information. A lot of people are confused with the accounting numbers. The importance is high to know and to learn how to find meaning in those numbers because it helps you to understand where your business is going. Measuring accounting numbers and business transactions need a context to be significant. A list of numbers doesnt mean much without knowing what you are looking at. You can find meaning about the accounting numbers by looking at the description labels, such as customers names, account names or vendor names. Moreover accounting numbers are usually used for analysis and to answer questions. For example if you want to know how much rent expenses you have left in your budget, you need to look at accounting numbers. They can provide you prÃ ©cis information about how much rent you have spent and how much you have left cover. Accounting quantifies operations and gives people the aptitude to see a situation from a different viewpoint. You can make important decisions if you look your sales numbers for the year and when you mix that with expenses, you can gain many issues, such as if the expenses are too high for sales or if payroll its usually low. Furthermore, accounting numbers help us in many ways. For instance by looking at accounting numbers you can easily recognise old accounts receivable that you have to collect and also with the accounts you know who owes you and for how long. These numbers and accounts are helpful and valuable to any organization or a business. On the other hand, accounting number have their weaknesses too. We consider many reasons and factors for weaknesses in numbers in financial statements. Some factors are: the creative accounting, the off balance sheet financing, bias, the managerial pressures and objectivity. Creative accounting it is a firm of misrepresenting the performance and position of a business. This means that accountants apply particular accounting methods to a transaction to make statements look the way they want them to look. Companies are free to choose which policies to apply, so there is a space in regulations to perform creative accounting. One of the most important things is that some planned attempts to materially misstate accounting figures are illegal. The most common examples include tax evasion schemes. Besides that, some Off-balance sheet financing issues occur when the accountant does not put everything on the balance sheet. Usually Off-balance sheet financing aims in making the business to seem more valuable by inflating the value of assets and does not include some liabilities. Additionally we have Bias who is causing the nepotism of the preferences or partial. Bias influences with an unfair way users of accounting information. Bias is also broken up in categories of Disclosure bias, Estimation bias, Attributional bias, Judgement bias. Inventors are usually influenced by disclosure bias and estimation bias lead auditors to verify false information. Bias does not affect only numerically but it also affects narrative reporting which represents the image and icon of a business management. Judgement bias affects the financial reporting subliminally, inaccuracies might also occur from unconscious bias. Accounting decisions require professional judgement. Ambiguity builds upon concept of representation and occurs of the representation of accrual accounting and cash flow. The problem that is made by ambiguity is that ambiguity surrounds accounting numbers and so numbers does not actually exist but are estimated. If you are looking to make your own financial ratio calculations then take a look at our Financial Ratio Calculator Environment Essay: Climate Change Disease Environment Essay: Climate Change Disease The Effects of Global Warming and Climate Change on Infectious Disease Patterns Climate Change The earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere was first equated to that of a greenhouse in 1827 by Jean Baptiste Fourier (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). The Ã¢â¬Ëgreenhouse effectÃ¢â¬â¢ describes the natural ability of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere and associated gases to retain heat radiated from the sun (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). Upon arrival in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere, the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s radiation is absorbed providing a warming effect to the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). A large portion of the absorbed radiation is reemitted back into the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere for release (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëgreenhouse gasesÃ¢â¬â¢, namely methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and perfluorocarbons serve as a barrier to the release of much of the reemitted radiation from the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). Although the Ã¢â¬Ëgreenhouse effectÃ¢â¬â¢ and the associated Ã¢â¬Ëgreenhouse gase sÃ¢â¬â¢ allow for the sustainability of life on earth, an overabundance of these gases has caused the emergence of global warming (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). Since the turn of the twentieth century, global temperatures have increased by 0.6Ã °C as depicted in Figure I (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2002). Future Figure I. Increases in the average global temperature from 1880 to 2002. Source: NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies predictions surrounding global temperature increases during the next century allude to a 2Ã °C to 6Ã °C increase (Climate Action Network Canada, n.d.). Because of its northern geography, the effects of global warming in Canada are expected to be more severe than other parts of the world with temperature increases forecasted between 6Ã °C and 10Ã °C (Climate Action Network Canada, n.d.). In northern Canada, birds foreign to the region, such as robins, are becoming more prevalent (Climate Action Network Canada, n.d.). Polar bears and other artic creatures are losing their habits to global warming due to the excessive melting of ice (Climate Action Network Canada, n.d.). As a result of the warming of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere, other climatic events have become more prevalent, hence the concept of climate change (Nugent, 2004). Specifically, extreme weather events and precipitation levels have risen and are expected to continue in an upward trend (Nugent, 2004). In the past decade, extreme weather events in Canada have drastically increased from less than 20 at the turn of the twentieth century to nearly 140 in 1999 (refer to Figure II) (Environment Canada, 2005). To compound on the increased prevalence of extreme weather events, by 2070, precipitation levels in Canada are expected to rise between 5 Figure II. Increases in extreme weather events over the past century as a result of global warming. Source: Environmental Canada and 25 percent as illustrated in Figure III (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). As a result of global warming and the subsequent increases in extreme weather events and precipitation levels, Figure IIII. Future predictions reveal substantial increases in precipitation amounts in Canada. Source: Natural Resources Canada alterations in infectious disease patterns are also anticipated (Landrigan Garg, 2002). Because the scope and consequences of global warming are complex and expand far beyond the increases in global temperatures, extreme weather events, and precipitation amounts, the remainder of this paper will focus on the interaction between climate change and infectious disease patterns in North America, especially Canada. Infectious Diseases To fully understand the connection between climate change and infectious disease patterns, a basic understanding of infectious diseases is needed. By definition, Ã¢â¬Å"infectious diseases are caused by invading organisms called pathogens [Ã¢â¬ ¦such asÃ¢â¬ ¦] bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and moldsÃ¢â¬ (Merrill Timmreck, 2006). For a pathogen to produce disease, it requires the presence of three elements: host, environment, and time (Merrill Timmreck, 2006). This relationship is beautifully depicted in the epidemiologic triangle as seen in Figure IV (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). Because the interaction between pathogens Time Figure IV. The epidemiologic triangle illustrates the connectedness and dependency of the host (disease-causing pathogen) on its environment and host. Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the environment is integral to the development, sustainability, and virulence of infectious diseases, climatic changes caused by global warming will alter the disease patterns of infectious pathogens (WHO, 2003). Specifically, increases in atmospheric temperatures, precipitation, humidity, and extreme weather events due to global warming will significantly change the environments in which infectious disease pathogens survive therefore altering their disease patterns (WHO, 2003). Infectious diseases can be grouped into four main categories based on their preferred environment and mode of transmission (Merrill Timmreck, 2006). Waterborne, foodborne, vector-borne, and rodent-borne infectious diseases are all caused by pathogens with varying environmental preferences (Merrill Timmreck, 2006). The prevalence and distribution of each of the four categories of infectious diseases has currently changed or is predicted to change as a result of global warming and climate change (Nugent, 2004). The next section of this paper will briefly discuss waterborne, foodborne, vector-borne, and rodent-borne infectious diseases respectively in relation to geographic spread, severity, and incidence rates. Waterborne Diseases Waterborne diseases are transmitted by pathogens that thrive in wet environments (Nugent, 2004). These pathogens are extremely sensitive to climate changes, namely water and temperature variations (Nugent, 2004). The climatic changes caused by global warming, specifically increases in precipitation and global temperatures will provide an ideal environment for waterborne disease pathogens to thrive (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). Therefore, the prevalence of waterborne diseases is predicted to rise due to the increase in the associated disease-causing pathogens and excessive levels of precipitation (Nugent, 2004). Among the effects of global warming, larger quantities of precipitation will increase the chance of contamination in surface runoff water and groundwater (Nugent, 2004). Because of deforestation and the subsequent urbanization of many regions in North America, the amount of surface runoff water has increased (Landrigan Garg, 2002). Traveling long distances over urbanized surfaces, such as concrete, asphalt, and tar, increases the likelihood of water contamination from chemicals present at the surface (Landrigan Garg, 2002). Groundwater contamination is primarily a result of pesticide and herbicide use and the increased seepage into the soil due to excessive precipitation (Landrigan Garg, 2002). Substantial amounts of contaminated surface runoff water and groundwater may cause water treatment facilities to overflow, allowing a source of tainted water to enter into a regionÃ¢â¬â¢s drinking and recreational water supplies (Nugent, 2004). Recent Canadian outbreaks of waterborne dise ases include Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] E.coli in Walkerton, Ontario; Cryptosporidium in Collingwood, Ontario; and Toxoplasma in the greater Victoria area, British ColumbiaÃ¢â¬ (Natural Resources of Canada, 2007). The causes of these outbreaks can be traced back to surface water and groundwater contamination (Natural Resources of Canada, 2007). To quantify the risk posed by contaminated surface water and groundwater, the American Journal of Public Health published an alarming report, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"of the 548 waterborne disease outbreaks reported between 1948 and 1994 [in the United States], 133 were known to be from surface water contamination, 197 were known to be form groundwater contamination, and 218 had an unknown water contamination sourceÃ¢â¬ (Curriero, Patz, Rose, Lele, 2001). As precipitation levels continue to escalate as a result of global warming, the prevalence of waterborne diseases and their associated pathogens will subsequently rise. Foodborne Diseases Foodborne diseases can originate from two possible sources: (1) the exposure of food products to contaminated water and (2) the growth of disease-causing pathogens within various food products (Nugent, 2004). Increased amounts of tainted water combined with warmer temperatures provide an ideal breeding ground for algae (Landrigan Garg, 2002). Oceans and lakes contaminated with algae pose a threat to the surrounding aquatic wildlife and the creatures in the upper hierarchy of the food chain. Among other marine wildlife, fish and mussels are most at-risk for algae contamination (Nugent, 2004). Human consumption of algal contaminated fish and mussels can result in waterborne disease transmission (Nugent, 2004). Such an incident occurred 21 years ago in Prince Edward Island when Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] 107 people were hospitalized and four died as a result of eating contaminated musselsÃ¢â¬ (Nugent, 2004). Other foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables are also prone to contamination from tainted water used for cleaning and irrigation purposes (Nugent, 2004). An example occurred Ã¢â¬Å"in 1997, [whenÃ¢â¬ ¦] 150 Michigan students and teachers contracted the foodborne disease Hepatitis A after eating imported strawberriesÃ¢â¬ (Nugent, 2004). In addition to water contamination, foodborne diseases can originate from the development of disease-causing pathogens within the food itself (Nugent, 2004). Warmer temperatures caused by global warming may entice people to remain outdoors for greater periods, potentially putting themselves at-risk of consuming food that has been left without refrigeration (Nugent, 2004). Vector-Borne Diseases Disease-causing pathogens transmitted from insects to humans are referred to as vector-borne diseases (Merrill Timmreck, 2006). Vector-borne disease patterns will feel the effects of global warming more than any other type of infectious disease since Ã¢â¬Å"the most common vectors, arthropods, are cold-blooded, meaning that their internal temperature is greatly affected by the temperature of their environmentÃ¢â¬ (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). Climatic consequences of global warming will directly impact the vectorsÃ¢â¬â¢ breeding and growth rates as well as the length of biting season and exposure to humans (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). Furthermore, increases in global temperatures and precipitation will stimulate the production, growth and transmission of the pathogens that vectors transmit (WHO, 2003). Therefore, vectors and the pathogens they carry are predicted to increase in prevalence in climates that have experienced or are predicted to experience an increase in average seasonal temperatures as a result of global warming (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). To further the effect of warmer temperatures on the production and growth rates of various vectors, floods and heavy rainfall produced by global warming can leave behind standing pools of water which make ideal habitats for breeding and growth (Landrigan Garg, 2002). The effects of global warming and climate change on vector-borne disease patterns have already become evident in Canada. Currently, the Canadian environment can sustain a variety of vector-borne diseases including West Nile virus, encephalitis, Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). Between 2002 and 2006, Canada reported and identified approximately 2,300 human cases of West Nile Virus (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2007). Warmer Canadian winters allow mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus and encephalitis to survive through the winter months increasing their reproductive season and subsequent growth and biting rates (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). Lyme disease, carried by ticks is already present in much of the United States with sporadic occurrences in Canada (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). If the warming trends associated with global warming continue, the migration of ticks and their associated diseases to Canada will occur in the ne ar future (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). Vector-borne diseases not present in epidemic proportions in North America, such as malaria, the plague, and yellow fever have the potential for reemergence if current global warming patterns do not subside (Nugent, 2004). Rodent-Borne Diseases Rodent-borne diseases are transmitted to humans by rats, chipmunks, and squirrels (Nugent, 2004). The primary effect of global warming on disease-carrying rodents is a disruption or alteration to their food supply (Nugent, 2004). Food may become scare in regions experiencing droughts forcing rodents to relocate to other regions with a greater abundance of food (Nugent, 2004). In areas experiencing increased amounts of precipitation, such as Canada, the potential for survival, reproduction, and growth will increase for rodents inhabiting the region (Nugent, 2004). A shift in geographical location of disease-carrying rodents will disrupt the natural rodent-borne disease patterns associated with an area. In Canada, a shift in the geographical range of deer mice has caused the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome to spread to regions in the Yukon, where its presence has never been experienced (Natural Resources Canada, 2007). Shift in Disease Prevalence Over the past century, the western culture has seen a tremendous shift in prevalence from infectious diseases to chronic diseases. At the turn of the nineteenth century, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and influenza attributed to nearly 30 percent of all deaths in the United States (Merrill Timmreck, 2006). Currently, cancer and heart disease cause almost 74 percent of all deaths in the United States (Merrill Timmreck, 2006). The effects of global warming on infectious diseases patterns could cause a reversal in disease prevalence, from chronic diseases back to infectious diseases (Longstreth Wiseman, 1989). Warmer temperatures and wetter climates create ideal breeding grounds for waterborne, foodborne, vector-borne, and rodent-borne disease pathogens (Nugent, 2004). Increasing the quantity of the disease-causing pathogens and the medium in which they survive could cause a reemergence of selected infected diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, and the plague in regions experiencing dra matic temperature shifts (Longstreth Wiseman, 1989). Effects on the Canadian Health Care System Because global warming involves a complex array of environmental processes and consequences, its future trends and resulting climatic effects are difficult to predict (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). The subsequent changes in infectious disease patterns caused by global warming will be just as difficult to predict as global warming itself (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). Therefore, the efforts of health officials and environmental specialists to predict and prepare for the effects of global warming on the environment and on human health will be primarily based on predictions. To best predict and prepare for the future outcomes of global warming, a wide array of specialists must be involved (Shope, 1991). Environmental specialists, such as meteorologists, biologists, and ecologists are required to predict the future climatic outcomes of global warming (Shope, 1991). Once predictions have been made by the environmental specialists, a wide array of health officials can attempt to forecast the res ulting disease patterns. Epidemiologists will be involved in identifying the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases as well as the control and prevention process (Bartfay, 2008). In conjunction with the epidemiologists, public health officials can communicate the predictions and findings of the epidemiologists, various health researchers, and environmental specialists to the public and other national and internal authorities (Bartfay, 2008). This process has currently been utilized in Canada in response to the emergence of West Nile virus (Landrigan Garg, 2002). Subsequent to the predictions of various environmental specialists and health officials regarding the changes in climatic conditions and infectious disease patterns, clinicians and hospital officials can prepare treatments and vaccines to counteract the shift in infectious diseases. Since most of the infectious diseases that have the potential for reemergence in North America have been previous eradicated from the continent, current vaccines are nonexistent (Longstreth Wiseman, 1989). Due to the lack of vaccines and subsequent immunity, the North American culture is at risk for contracting and transmitting a wide array of infectious diseases such as malaria, cholera, and the plague (Longstreth Wiseman, 1989). Developing and implementing vaccines is a crucial step in protecting the public from a widespread, fatal epidemic (Longstreth Wiseman, 1989). In the occurrence of an infectious disease outbreak, hospital personnel and health officials need to have the proper treatments and pr ocedures available to the public to avoid widespread morbidity and mortality. In short, the North American health care systems can expect to see a shift in disease prevalence. As a result of global warming, infectious diseases have the potential to become more prevalent. To effectively respond, infectious disease treatments and facilities need to be devised and implemented into health care systems across the continent. Furthermore, medical schools need to revise their curriculum to incorporate additional training for infectious disease treatment and prevention. Conclusion Global warming and the resulting climatic conditions is an issue that should have been attended to Ã¢â¬ËyesterdayÃ¢â¬â¢. Since consequences directly affect human health and associated ecosystems, global warming has become a worldwide crisis. Increases in temperature, extreme weather events, and precipitation create ideal breeding and growth habitats for many infectious disease-causing pathogens (Nugent, 2004). Among other diseases, infectious diseases transmitted through water, food, vector, and rodent sources are most at risk for being disrupted and altered (Nugent, 2004). Due to current and predicted global warming trends, northern climates could see a reemergence of a variety of infectious diseases including malaria, yellow fever, and West Nile virus (Nugent, 2004). In response to the shift, North American health care systems need to devise and implement associated vaccines, treatments, and facilities to effectively manage the newly reemerged infectious diseases. Because many infectious diseases have been eradicated from North America, the lack of immunity in the western culture could cause a continental or global epidemic with fatal outcomes (Longstreth Wiseman, 1989). To avoid the spread of infectious diseases, a collaboration of efforts between environmental specialists, health officials, and the public is necessary. Without the combined efforts from the global population, global warming and its subsequent health and climatic effects will eventually destroy mankind. As put in the words of Al Gore, Ã¢â¬Å"we are entering a period of consequencesÃ¢â¬ (Gore, 2005). References Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.) Understanding the Epidemiologic Trianglethrough Infectious Disease. Retrieved March 13, 2008, fromhttp://www.bam.gov/teachers/activities/epi_1_triangle.pdf. Climate Action Network Canada. (n.d.) A Climate Change Primer. Retrieved March 14, 2008,from http://www.climateactionnetwork.ca/e/issues/cc-primer.html. Curriero, F. C., Patz, J. A., Rose, J. B., Lele, S. (August, 2001). The Association BetweenExtreme Precipitation and Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States, 19481994. American Journal of Public Health, 91. Retrieved March 4, 2008, fromhttp://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/91/8/1194?maxtoshow=HITS=10hits=10RESULORMAT=fulltext=waterborne+disease+outbreaks+between+1948+and+1994andoreactfulltext=andsearchid=1FIRSTINDEX=0sortspec=relevanceresourcetype=HCIT. Environment Canada. (May, 2005). Temperature and Precipitation: Indicators of ClimateChange. Retrieved March 12, 2008, fromhttp://www.ecoinfo.org/env_ind/region/climate/climate_e.cfm. Gore, A. (September 5, 2005). Notable Quotes Ã¢â¬â Quotes on Global Warming. Retrieved March 7,2008, from http://www.notable-quotes.com/g/global_warming_quotes.html. Khasnis, A. A., Nettleman, M. D. (April, 2005). Global Warming and Infectious Disease.Achieves of Medical Research, 36. Retrieved February 26, 2008, fromhttp://academic.evergreen.edu/cirricular/per/downloads/khasnisnettleman2005.pdf. Landrigan, P., Garg, A. (July 2002). Climate Change and Infectious Disease. The GreenGuide. Retrieved March 6, 2008, fromhttp://www.thegreenguide.com/docprint.mhtml?i=91s=landrigan. Longstreth, J., Wiseman, J. (1989). The potential impact of climate change on patterns ofinfectious disease in the United States. In The potential effects of global climate changeon the United States: Appendix G Health. Retrieved March 3, 2008, fromhttp://www.ciesin.org/docs/001-488/001-488.html. Merrill, R. M., Timmreck, T. C. (2006). Introduction to epidemiology: Fourth edition.Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. (2002). GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Ã¢â¬âGlobal Temperature Trends: 2002 Summation. Retrieved March 15, 2008, fromhttp://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/2002/. Natural Resources Canada. (October, 2007). Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: ACanadian Perspective Ã¢â¬â Health Effects of Climate Change and Climate Variability.Retrieved March 15, 2008, from http://www.adaptation.rncan.gc.ca/perspective/health_3_e.php. Natural Resources Canada. (October, 2007). Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: ACanadian Perspective Ã¢â¬â Looking to the Future. Retrieved March 15, 2008, fromhttp://adaptation.nrcan.gc.ca/perspective/intro_2_e.php. Nugent, Olivia. (April, 2004). Climate Change and Human Health. In Primer On ClimateChange and Human Health (chapter 2). Retrieved February 27, 2008, fromhttp://www.pollutionprobe.org/Reports/climatechangeprimer.pdf. Public Health Agency of Canada. (November 30, 2007). Current Report Week and Year-to-DateTotal West Nile Virus Cases: 2007. West Nile Virus Monitor. Retrieved March 6, 2008,from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/wnv-vwn/mon-hmnsurv_e.html. Shope, R. (1991). Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. Environmental HealthPerspectives, 96. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from http://www.ciesin.org/docs/001-366/001-366.html. World Health Organization. (2003). Climate Change and Infectious Diseases. In Climate Changeand Human Health Ã¢â¬â Risks and Responses (chapter 6). Retrieved February 25, 2008, fromhttp://www.euro.who.int/document/gch/climchsum0903e.pdf.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Cannabis Debate The Federal Government of the United States doesn't condone the use of marijuana and any schedule I drugs at the present time, which is any substance that has no current medical use and is a mind altering drug. Under new circumstances in California and Arizona, there is a temporary Bill that has been passed legalizing the schedule I drug for medical use, known as Act 215: Medical use limited to cancer patients and individuals with the disease glaucoma. Individuals that are of consequence are punishable by law and the severity level of punishment is increased from using, to growing, and intent to distribute. Controversy has erupted from the legalization of marijuana for its potential medical, industrial, economic, and environmental benefits. Many have taken government restrictions to new levels of ideological debate, such as reading in them as an attack on personal Freedom Amendment. With controversy and advanced technology, individuals can now voice their opinions is to find out why the subject matter of cannabis is on the internet. The purpose of my research is to find out why the subject matter of cannabis is on the internet. I will discuss why people are interested in the subject and the arguments that they present on the internet. My research will focus on the aspects of freedom of choice, legalization, medical aspects, industrial economic activity and usage among college students. The internet contains many web sites addressing the subject of drugs. The most prevalent and debated topic in the present time is cannabis, a green plant that has been around since the ancient Greeks. Early usage dates back as far as ancient China in a tea form to cure or tame wild children that were disobedient and trou... ...htm(5 March 1997). Green Panthers. "Green Panthers" http://www.greenpanthers.org/welcome.htm(20 March 1997). Mercury Center. "Harnessing Hemp: Environmental, Economic vision drives move to legalize industrial hemp"http://www.sjmercury.com/special/reprints/mari8.htm (27 March 1997). Heretik. "Heretik's Hemp page" http://freethought.tamu.edu/~heretik/(3 April 1997). High Times. "High Times" http://www.hightimes.com/ht/welcome.html (5 March 1997). "Marijuana as Medicine:A Plea for Reconsideration" http://www.calyx.net/~olsen/medical/lester.html (25 March 1997). "NORML"http://www.xs4all.nl/~mlap/norml/jun953.html(1 April 1997). Tom. "Tom's Views On Prohibition In America" http://www.televar.com/~thawkins/tomview.html (20 March 1997). "Washington State Marijuana/Hemp Legalization Initiative" http://www.hemp.net/hipws/intro.html (20 March 1997).
Monday, August 19, 2019
Black Studies Paper African's past can be dated back to millions and millions of years. People from every continent is a descendant of the African origin. This essay will explain African's isolation to the rest of the world and some of the famous contributions and some of Africa's contributions to our world. Researchers have found that African people were the home of the first human beings. They have found fossils and archaeological findings that support thus evidence and by genetic research. These findings date back to 4.4 million years ago in Ethiopia. Actually human beings date back to 40 thousand years, these people were discovered also in Ethiopia. Around 10 thousand BC the Fertile Crescent had a large agricultural lands that produced vegetation, economic wealth, and brought people together. 7000 thousand years later the land became unagricultural and started to look the way it looks today in the Sahara Desert. This divided the continent into 2 parts, the North and the South. This made trade and contact to others extremely difficult. Poor soils due to shortage of water have taken its toll on Africa too. This is because poor soils lead to bad vegetation, which leads to less food, and then there are fewer jobs and less wealth. Fewer good also lead to diseases related to not eating well. Also Africa doesn't connect to any particular place. It has no rivers leading into the seven oceans, so there is not transportation or communication to those in the middle of Africa. This means no imports or exports therefore, any economic wealth. Africa is made of 400 million people throughout 50 countries with 800 different languages, which is probably difficult for communication and understanding of each other's. Leading again to Africa taking power of the world. Europe had labeled Africa as the "Dark Continent" because they didn't know much about it. Even though thousands of years ago their customs and ways of doing things originated from Africa. Africa's contributions to our world date back to about six thousand years in Egypt. It begins with the agricultural revolution which wheat and barley were grown with methods of irrigation, terracing, and crop rotations. Raising and domesticating animals was also a practice. The developing of better tools such ones made of metals like iron and bronze. Hieroglyphics, which are picture painting, were carved into stones to show what was going on. African's contributed the 365-day calendar and are the first people to divide the year into 12 months. Black Studies Paper :: History Black Studies Paper African's past can be dated back to millions and millions of years. People from every continent is a descendant of the African origin. This essay will explain African's isolation to the rest of the world and some of the famous contributions and some of Africa's contributions to our world. Researchers have found that African people were the home of the first human beings. They have found fossils and archaeological findings that support thus evidence and by genetic research. These findings date back to 4.4 million years ago in Ethiopia. Actually human beings date back to 40 thousand years, these people were discovered also in Ethiopia. Around 10 thousand BC the Fertile Crescent had a large agricultural lands that produced vegetation, economic wealth, and brought people together. 7000 thousand years later the land became unagricultural and started to look the way it looks today in the Sahara Desert. This divided the continent into 2 parts, the North and the South. This made trade and contact to others extremely difficult. Poor soils due to shortage of water have taken its toll on Africa too. This is because poor soils lead to bad vegetation, which leads to less food, and then there are fewer jobs and less wealth. Fewer good also lead to diseases related to not eating well. Also Africa doesn't connect to any particular place. It has no rivers leading into the seven oceans, so there is not transportation or communication to those in the middle of Africa. This means no imports or exports therefore, any economic wealth. Africa is made of 400 million people throughout 50 countries with 800 different languages, which is probably difficult for communication and understanding of each other's. Leading again to Africa taking power of the world. Europe had labeled Africa as the "Dark Continent" because they didn't know much about it. Even though thousands of years ago their customs and ways of doing things originated from Africa. Africa's contributions to our world date back to about six thousand years in Egypt. It begins with the agricultural revolution which wheat and barley were grown with methods of irrigation, terracing, and crop rotations. Raising and domesticating animals was also a practice. The developing of better tools such ones made of metals like iron and bronze. Hieroglyphics, which are picture painting, were carved into stones to show what was going on. African's contributed the 365-day calendar and are the first people to divide the year into 12 months.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Teens and Smoking Abstract Cigarette smoking is of interest to the National Institute on Drug Abuse both because of the public health problems associated with this form of substance abuse and because this behavior represents a prototypic dependence process. In the past few years the government has made every effort to reach the masses, in an attempt to curb the exploitation of tobbacco use, and its acceptance among Americas Youngsters. However, cigarette smoking among adolescents is on the rise. The premise that the behavior of adolescents is influenced by the behavior of their parents is central to many considerations of health and social behavior (Ausubel, Montemayor, & Svajiian, 1977; Bandura & Walters, 1963). Many young people between 10-18 years of age experiment with smoking, smoking is a personal choice, and usually exploratory in nature. Typically, it takes place in rather young people and is largely dependent on: first, the availability of opportunity to engage in the behavior, second, having a fairly high degree of curiosity about the effects of the behavior; third, in finding it a way of expressing either conformity to the behavior or others (such as parents, older siblings or peers), forth, as in "Miller and Dollar's" explanation of Observational Learning, The Copying behavior effect. This research is to examine the effects of parental smoking (behavior), has, on the decision of teens to smoke cigarettes. Due to prior studies using global measures that may or may not include South Eastern North Carolina. The Fayetteville/Fort Bragg area was chosen for this study to pinpoint the effects in this particular locale. Fort Bragg and Pope Air Force Base have a very diverse socieo-economic and culturally diverse population, which will have a positive effect on randomness of sample selection. With this association in mind, this researcher is interested in knowing if there is a relationship of Parental influence on Teen Smoking within this Military Community. Introduction The prevalence of cigarette smoking among young teenagers is a growing problem in the United States, many young people between the ages of 10-18 are experimenting with tobacco. During the 1040's and 50's smoking was popular and socially acceptable. Movie stars, sports heroes, and celebrities appeared in cigarette advertisements that ... ...ribution statistics will be used to identify significant differences between sub samples. References Bauman, K. E., Foshee, V. A., Linzer, M. A., Koch, G. G. (1990). Effect of parental smoking classification on the association between parental and adolescent smoking. Addictive-behaviors, 15,(5), 413-422. Horevitz, M. J., (1985). Disasters and psychological responses to stress. Psychiatric Annals, 15, 161-167. Hu, F. B. Flak, B. R., Hedeker, D. (1995). The inlfuence of friends and parental smoking on adolescent smoking behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, v4 (3), 215-225. Jessor, R. (1993). Successful adolescent development among high-risk settings, American Psychologist, 48, 117-126. Johnston, L., O'Malley, P., Bachman, J. (1988). Drug use among American high school students, College students and other young adults. National trends through 1991. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Monograph Series, (1979). Cigarette Smoking as a dependence Process. National Institute on Drug Abuse. 23
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The Mortuary and Anatomic Pathology unit signifiers portion of the Pathology Department. It is linked to the Mater Dei Hospital complex via an belowground service corridor through which organic structures will be transported in a more dignified mode. It is besides situated in an stray portion of the Mater Dei composite in order to let for a more dignified readying of our beloved departed in the quieter portion of the Hospital. The mortuary offers assorted other services which include: Receiving organic structures from the Hospital and other establishments and beginnings such as the community. Fixing organic structures for their funeral rites. In the morgue, besides there being a room for readying of organic structures of people who believed in the Roman Catholic religion, there is besides a room saved for readying of organic structures for people who believed in other faiths and have different spiritual rites with respect to readying of the dead The mortuary offers an necropsy service for the assorted Hospitals that require a station mortem scrutiny. The morgue at Mater Dei is besides equipped to provide for forensic station mortem surveies. In order to supply these services, the mortuary contains many installations and machines. These installations and machines include a cold storage, organic structure electric refrigerators, a station mortem country and a research lab, an embalming room and a organic structure readying room. Sing suites are besides present to enable relations and friends to pay their last respects to the departed in a more private ambiance. There is besides a Mortuary Chapel where relations and friends can happen clip for minutes of silence and contemplation and take part in the concluding supplications recited merely before the organic structure is transferred to an expecting hearse for its last ocean trip to the graveyard.Duties of the Scientist at the MortuaryThe chief responsibilities of the scientist at the mortuary and anatomic pathology unit are the disposal and direction of assets and processs available at the morgue. These responsibilities include: Administration: This function incorporates the logistical and scientific facets relevant to a modern Mortuary and Anatomic pathology unit. This function besides includes rendering a service to clients so it is imperative that good client service is offered. All release signifiers, decease certifications, general mortuary signifiers and client information has to be documented and filed decently by the administrative staff. Post mortem scrutinies, which can be ordered either by the Consultant within the province Hospitals in what is known as a infirmary station mortem or by the Magistrate on responsibility if the individual died under leery fortunes. In this instance a forensic station mortem is used. The necropsy is besides indispensable in finding the cause of decease of investigated persons. Histology. The samples obtained from the organic structure during the necropsy must be subjected to histopathological probe. The samples obtained from the organic structure during the necropsy receive the same intervention as those obtained from a life patient in an operating theater. Other processs such as Health and safety, procurance of specimens, concatenation of detention, certification and many more processs.The Relevance of a Post Mortem Examination.A station mortem scrutiny is a careful scrutiny of the bygone person. It can offer valuable hints as to how the individual died every bit good as information sing the unwellness and its effects on the organic structure. It may besides give a more precise indicant with respect to how the single died. Sometimes, even the best and most elaborate station mortem scrutinies may non bring out the cause of decease and may besides go forth certain inquiries unreciprocated. These probes are normally carried out by a diagnostician. A diagnostician is a individual who specialises in the research lab survey of disease and of morbid tissue. The diagnostician is assisted by a scientist with specialist preparation in this peculiar field. Post mortems are carried out in particular installations located in the Hospital Mortuary. Post mortem scrutinies are a benefit to the medical profession as they provide information sing wellness and unwellness that would non be discovered anyplace else. These scrutinies paved the manner for both anatomical finds and new information sing unwellnesss. Post mortem scrutinies help place the cause of decease of an person, confirm the nature of the unwellness and besides the extent of the disease and are capable of placing other undiagnosed conditions. Another usage of station mortem scrutinies is to measure the effects of interventions and drugs and aid place complications or side effects. A station mortem is a valuable tool for loved 1s as it helps them understand why the person died. Families can on occasion inquire inquiries that can merely be answered by information acquired from a station mortem. Some of the information obtained from a station mortem scrutiny can profit future kids in the household and patients who suffer from similar unwellnesss. ( Post mortem scrutiny a aÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ Ã¢â¬ information for relations, 2007 ) .Stairss Taken to Maintain Health and Safety Standards in the MortuaryThe Mortuary presents a figure of wellness and safety hazards for forces. These hazards include both wellness related, accidents due to working conditions and hazards specific to working with human remains. These remains are a serious biohazard and are host to assorted pathogens and risky residues such as bacteriums, infective spores, infective soft tissue and residues of military and industrial chemicals. These pathogens can be transmitted either by manus to talk contact, contact with mucous secretion membranes, or via the air in the necropsy room or organic structure fluids such as blood. Extra hazards to transmittal of pathogens include the handling of heavy organic structures and utilizing insanitary and insecure equipment. The Mortuary in the Mater Dei Hospital is split into two chief countries, a clean country and a soiled country. These countries are separated by a transitional zone. The soiled countries include organic structure shops at a temperature of 4AAÃ °C. It has easy to clean, non-porous surfaces and a system of containment for any organic structure fluids. On the other manus, the clean country consists of the screening suites, the chapel, offices and response countries. It besides has proper ambient clime controls to take smells and bluess and is chiefly where clean equipment is stored. Bodies, equipment and people working in these separate countries must ne'er come into contact with one another whilst working. Besides, a organic structure should ne'er travel into the dry country before it has been decently cleaned and any soft tissue found is removed. Once the soft tissue is removed it is placed in a deep-freeze. The remainder of the human remains are so stored in a separate freeze countr y. It is indispensable that all employees working at the Mater Dei Hospital mortuary wear personal protective equipment ( PPE ) , which is designed to assist protect the scientist from serious wellness and safety dangers. This equipment is found in the clean transitional country located in forepart of the necropsy room, to enable scientists to alter into their safety equipment before come ining. PPE worn by a scientist in the autopsy room of the mortuary include: Overalls/scrubs ( washable or disposable ) . It is imperative that this peculiar equipment be worn every twenty-four hours to protect the tegument from any dust and organic structure fluid which may do infection. Latex/nitrile baseball mitts. Nitrile baseball mitts are used by scientists who are allergic to latex and must be worn when managing organic structures or organic structure fluids. Double gloving is the process Facemask. It is normally found as a vizor. This is worn when cleaning organic structures, vesture and artifacts and has to be on a regular basis cleaned by the scientist utilizing it. It prevents infection by protecting the face from splash dorsum of organic structure fluids. Safety goggles/glasses. These are worn to forestall any dust from coming into contact with the oculus, which could take to a potentially serious hurt and perchance infection. Mortuary shoes/wellington boots. These are non-slip boots similar to those used in surgeries. They are rainproof and prevent entry of fluids. Aprons. All surgical equipment used must be sanitised and autoclaved decently after every usage and has to be stored in a safe and unafraid closet when it is non being utilized. The most unsafe tool, the necropsy saw, can merely be used by experient forces. Handss and open tegument must be washed after the necropsy to take any dust or organic structure fluids of the dead person as these may do infections. It is besides of import non to touch au naturel tegument while have oning baseball mitts. The scientist working in the necropsy room must non touch his or her eyes, oral cavity or olfactory organ to forestall spread of any blood borne infections. Beyond the altering country there is besides a shower which scientists can utilize after managing organic structure samples. The necropsy and dissection tabular arraies are made up of chromium steel steel and are connected to a supply of low force per unit area H2O. This H2O is treated with Cl to take any infective agents and is so discharged into the normal sewerage system. A High Energy Particulate Air ( HEPA ) filter can besides be found in the necropsy room to pin down any viruses or airborne bacteriums from go outing the installations and go arounding into the outside air. It is indispensable that outside vesture non be worn in the morgue. Extra PPE should be worn in specific countries such as the biohazard room for excess protection and when samples are being taken for deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) analysis. Finally, the morgue is cleaned exhaustively and disinfected every dark. Working in the mortuary poses a serious wellness hazard to scientists. Some of these possible hazards include working in excessively hot or excessively cold conditions, bacterial related illness, organic structure fluid or tissue related illness, raising hurts and emphasis related illness. That is why it is ensured that inoculations for certain diseases such as lockjaw, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, Tuberculosis, Typhoid, Diphtheria and Rabies be accounted for in every scientist working in the necropsy room. It is indispensable that every new employee undergoes a wellness and safety briefing and that hazard appraisals be carried out every clip a new organic structure arrives. The mortuary staff must be briefed on the new hazards found. A first assistance kit has to be present along with person who knows how to give first assistance. Anyone come ining the morgue has to follow general wellness and safety patterns. Fragmentary bone may be crisp and organic structures can be heavy, hence the staff must undergo manual managing preparation.