Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The core idea is to maximize customer value while minimizing waste. Simply, lean means creating more value for customers with fewer resources. A lean organization understands customer value and focuses its key processes to continuously increase it. The ultimate goal is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect value creation process that has zero waste.To accomplish this, lean thinking changes the focus of management from optimizing separate technologies, assets, and vertical departments to optimizing the flow of products and services through entire value streams that flow horizontally across technologies, assets, and departments to customers. Eliminating waste along entire value streams, instead of at isolated points, creates processes that need less human effort, less space, less capital, and less time to make products and services at far less costs and with much fewer defects, compared with traditional business systems.Companies are able to respond to changing cus tomer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times. Also, information management becomes much simpler and more accurate. A BRIEF HISTORY OF LEAN Although there are instances of rigorous process thinking in manufacturing all the way back to the Arsenal in Venice in the 1450s, the first person to truly integrate an entire production process was Henry Ford.At Highland Park, MI, in 1913 he married consistently interchangeable parts with standard work and moving conveyance to create what he called flow production. The public grasped this in the dramatic form of the moving assembly line, but from the standpoint of the manufacturing engineer the breakthroughs actually went much further. Ford lined up fabrication steps in process sequence wherever possible using special-purpose machines and go/no-go gauges to fabricate and assemble the components going into the vehicle within a few minutes, and deliver erfectly fitting components directly to line-si de. This was a truly revolutionary break from the shop practices of the American System that consisted of general-purpose machines grouped by process, which made parts that eventually found their way into finished products after a good bit of tinkering (fitting) in subassembly and final assembly. Ã¢â¬ ¦ The problem with FordÃ¢â¬â¢s system was not the flow: He was able to turn the inventories of the entire company every few days.Rather it was his inability to provide variety. The Model T was not just limited to one color. It was also limited to one specification so that all Model T chassis were essentially identical up through the end of production in 1926. (The customer did have a choice of four or five body styles, a drop-on feature from outside suppliers added at the very end of the production line. Indeed, it appears that practically every machine in the Ford Motor Company worked on a single part number, and there were essentially no changeovers. When the world wanted variety, including model cycles shorter than the 19 years for the Model T, Ford seemed to lose his way. Other automakers responded to the need for many models, each with many options, but with production systems whose design and fabrication steps regressed toward process areas with much longer throughput times.Over time they populated their fabrication shops with larger and larger machines that ran faster and faster, apparently lowering costs per process step, but continually increasing throughput times and inventories except in the rare caseÃ¢â¬âlike engine machining linesÃ¢â¬âwhere all of the process steps could be linked and automated. Even worse, the time lags between process steps and the complex part routings required ever more sophisticated information management systems culminating in computerized Materials Requirements Planning(MRP) systems .As Kiichiro Toyoda, Taiichi Ohno, and others at Toyota looked at this situation in the 1930s, and more intensely just after World War II , it occurred to them that a series of simple innovations might make it more possible to provide both continuity in process flow and a wide variety in product offerings. They therefore revisited FordÃ¢â¬â¢s original thinking, and invented the Toyota Production System. This system in essence shifted the focus of the manufacturing engineer from individual machines and their utilization, to the flow of the product through the total process.Toyota concluded that by right-sizing machines for the actual volume needed, introducing self-monitoring machines to ensure quality, lining the machines up in process sequence, pioneering quick setups so each machine could make small volumes of many part numbers, and having each process step notify the previous step of its current needs for materials, it would be possible to obtain low cost, high variety, high quality, and very rapid throughput times to respond to changing customer desires. Also, information management could be made much simpler an d more accurate.PRINCIPLES OF LEAN The five-step thought process for guiding the implementation of lean techniques is easy to remember, but not always easy to achieve: 1. Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family. 2. Identify all the steps in the value stream for each product family, eliminating whenever possible those steps that do not create value. 3. Make the value-creating steps occur in tight sequence so the product will flow smoothly toward the customer. 4. As flow is introduced, let customers pull value from the next upstream activity. . As value is specified, value streams are identified, wasted steps are removed, and flow and pull are introduced, begin the process again and continue it until a state of perfection is reached in which perfect value is created with no waste. LEAN ACTION PLAN While every individual or company embarking on a lean journey will have different challenges based on their particular set of circumstances, there are several crucial steps that can help reduce resistance, spread the right learning, and engender the type of commitment necessary for lean enterprise.Getting Started Ã¢â¬ ¢Find a change agent, a leader who will take personal responsibility for the lean transformation. Ã¢â¬ ¢Get the lean knowledge, via a sensei or consultant, who can teach lean techniques and how to implement them as part of a system, not as isolated programs. Ã¢â¬ ¢Find a lever by seizing a crisis or by creating one to begin the transformation. If your company currently isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in crisis, focus attention on a lean competitor or find a lean customer or supplier who will make demands for dramatically better performance. Forget grand strategy for the moment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Map the value streams, beginning with the current state of how material and information flow now, then drawing a leaner future state of how they should flow and creating an implementation plan with timetable. Ã¢â¬ ¢Begin as soon as possible with an important and visible activity. Ã¢â¬ ¢Demand immediate results. Ã¢â¬ ¢As soon as youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got momentum, expand your scope to link improvements in the value streams and move beyond the shop floor to office processes.Creating an Organization to Channel Your Value Streams Ã¢â¬ ¢Reorganize your firm by product family and value stream. Ã¢â¬ ¢Create a lean promotion function. Ã¢â¬ ¢Deal with excess people at the outset, and then promise that no one will lose their job in the future due to the introduction of lean techniques. Ã¢â¬ ¢Devise a growth strategy. Ã¢â¬ ¢Remove the anchor-draggers. Ã¢â¬ ¢Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve fixed something, fix it again. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Two steps forward and one step backward is O. K. ; no steps forward is not O. K. Install Business Systems to Encourage Lean Thinking Ã¢â¬ ¢Utilize policy deployment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Create a lean accounting system. Ã¢â¬ ¢Pay your people in relation to the performance of your firm. Ã¢â¬ ¢Make performance measures transparent. Ã¢â¬ ¢Teac h lean thinking and skills to everyone. Ã¢â¬ ¢Right-size your tools, such as production equipment and information systems. Completing the Transformation Ã¢â¬ ¢Convince your suppliers and customers to take the steps just described. Ã¢â¬ ¢Develop a lean global strategy. Convert from top-down leadership to leadership based on questioning, coaching, and teaching and rooted in the scientific method of plan-do-check-act . Integrate Six Sigma, Lean and Kaizen People spend months drilling the Six Sigma process and statistical tools 1-Sample Sign Test This is used to test the probability of a sample median being equal to hypothesized value. H0: m1=m2=m3=m4 (null hypothesis) Ha: At least one is different (alternate hypothesis)
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Gold Medal Heights The heights achieved by gold medalists in the high jump have been recorded starting from the 1932 Olympics to the 1980 Olympics. The table below shows the Year in row 1 and the Height in centimeters in row 2 Year| 1932| 1936| 1948| 1952| 1956| 1960| 1964| 1968| 1972| 1976| 1980| Height (cm)| 197| 203| 198| 204| 212| 216| 218| 224| 223| 225| 236| They were recorded to show a pattern year after year and to reveal a trend. The data graph below plots the height on the y-axis and the year on the x-axis. Data Graph 1 Height (cm) Height (cm) Year YearIn Data Graph 1 the data shown represents the height in cm achieved by gold medalists in accordance to the year in which the Olympic games were held. The Graph shows a gradual increase in height as the years increase. The parameters shown in this are the heights, which can be measured during each year to show the rise. The constraints of this task are finding a function to fit the data point shown in Data Graph 1. Some other constraints would be that there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t any outliers in the graph and it has been a pretty steady linear rise. The type of function that models the behavior of the function is linear.This type of function models it because the points resemble a line rather than a curve. To represent the points plotted in Data Graph 1 a function is created. To start deciphering a function I started with the equation Ã¢â¬â Y = mx + b To show the slope of the line since the function is linear. For the first point the function would have to satisfy 197 = m (1932) + b In order for the line to be steep the b value or y intercept will have to be low to give it a more upward positive slope. Y = mx -1000 197 = m (1932) -1000 1197 = m (1932) m = 0. 619The final linear equation to satisfy some points would be y = 0. 62x Ã¢â¬â 1000 The graph below shoes the model linear function and the original data points to show their relationship. Graph 2 Year Year Height (cm) Height (cm) The graph above shows t he linear function y = 0. 62x Ã¢â¬â 1000 in relation to the data points plotted on Data Graph 1. The differences between the function and the points plotted is that the function does not full satisfy all the x and y values. The outliers in this case are from the years 1948, 1952, and 1980 which all of y values that do not meet the function closely.Using regression the following function and graph is found. The function and line found using regression matches the one found by me. The linear function does not cross all points but shows the gradual shape in which the points plotted make. Another function that is used is a quadratic function Quadratic functions are set up as: Y = px2 + tx +b To make this function resemble the points plotted on the Graph 1 the p value will have to be very small to widen the shape of the quadratic The b value also has to be small to resemble the y intercept and to give the graph a more upward slopeI used the function: Y = 0. 0000512Ãâ"2 + 0. 5171x Ã¢ â¬â 1010 In order for this function to work it must satisfy the point of (1964, 218) Y = 0. 0000512 (1964)2 + 0. 5171 (1964) Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 0. 0000512 (3857296) + 1015. 58 Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 197. 49 + 1015. 58 Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 218 This graph of the function y = 0. 0000512Ãâ"2 +0. 5171x Ã¢â¬â 1010 is shown in the following Graph 3 as it is against the points plotted in Data Graph 1 Graph 3 Height (cm) Height (cm) Year Year It is shown in Graph 3 that the quadratic function does resemble the shape of the line plotted by the points in Data Graph 1.In Graph 4 both functions are shown against the original data points plotted in Data Graph 1. Graph 4 Height (cm) Height (cm) Year Year Had the games been held in 1940 and 1944 the winning heights would be estimated as: Y = 0. 62(1940) Ã¢â¬â 1000 Y = 1202. 8 Ã¢â¬â 1000 Y = 202. 8 When the x value of 1940 is plugged into the linear equation y = 0. 62x Ã¢â¬â 1000 the y value, or winning height in the year 1940, would be 202. 8. Y = 0. 0000512(1940)2 + 0. 5171(1940) Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 0. 0000512(3763600) + 1003. 17 Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 192. 69 + 1003. 17 Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 185. 86 When the x value 1940 is plugged into the quadratic equation y = 0. 000512Ãâ"2 + 0. 5171x Ã¢â¬â 1010 the y value, or winning height for 1940, is 185. 86. In order to make a more accurate estimate for the winning height in 1940 the average of both terms, 202. 8 and 185. 86, are taken. 202. 8 + 185. 86 / 2 = 194. 33 The estimated winning height in 1940 would be 194. 33 For the estimated winning height in 1944: Y = 0. 62(1944) Ã¢â¬â 1000 Y = 1205. 28 Ã¢â¬â 1000 Y = 205. 28 When the x value of 1944 is plugged into the linear equation 0. 62x Ã¢â¬â 1000 the y value, or winning height in 1944, is 205. 8. Y = 0. 0000512(1944)2 + 0. 5171(1944) Ã¢â¬â 1010Y = 0. 0000512(3779136) + 1005. 24 Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 193. 49 + 1005. 24 Ã¢â¬â 1010 Y = 188. 73 When the x value of 1944 is plugged into the quadratic equation of 0. 00005 12Ãâ"2 + 0. 5171x + 1010 the y value, or winning height in 1944, is 188. 73. To have a more accurate estimate of the winning height the average of the two y values of two functions is taken. 188. 73 + 205. 28 / 2 = 197. 01 The winning height for the 1944 Olympics would be estimated at 197. 01 Graph 5 Year Year Height (cm) Height (cm) Graph 5 shows all the data from the 1896 Olympics to the 2008 Olympics.The red line is the quadratic function f(x) = 0. 0000512Ãâ"2 + 0. 5171x Ã¢â¬â 1010 and the blue line represents the linear function f(x) = 0. 62x -1000. The function models that are represented in Graph 5 do not fully resemble the points plotted from the gold medal high jump heights but have an overall shape of the rise in height from year to year. Graph 6 Height (cm) Height (cm) Year Year The graph above shows all data point plotted on a graph. The overall trend or shape resemble that of a cubic. Graph 7 The shape of the cubic resembles more of the shape shown in the data poi nts plotted on Graph 6.The modifications that need to be made on my models are that the quadratic function needs to have a more curve to it than just a straight line. To do that I need to change the variables a, b, and c in the equation f(x) = ax2 + bx + c f(x) = 0. 0000512Ãâ"2 + 0. 5171x -1010 Graph 8 Height (cm) Height (cm) Year Year In a zoomed out view the graph shows the overall shape of the quadratic shape of the red line and how it goes through the black data points and how the linear equation is completely straight. IB Mathematics SL Year 2 Internal Assessment Gold Medal Heights Date Due: February 11, 2013
In his essay, Civil Disobedience, Henry David Thoreau introduced his audience to his personal thoughts regarding the injustice of the American government. Moreover, he sought to encourage individual action to boycott any law or institution instilled by the government that was in any way conflicting with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. A true revolutionary at heart, Thoreau put his words into action by refusing to pay his poll tax for 6 years and was forced to spend the night in jail because of it.Rather than seeking reform by cooperating with the corrupt institutions of his time, he refused to become a part of them and condemned their existence. Ã¢â¬Å"That government is best which governs leastÃ¢â¬ is the quote Thoreau incorporated to his opening sentence. In a nutshell, he was attempting to convey that considering the fact the government exists to serve the people, it should not do much to interfere with the quotidian life of those under its spectrum of power. He sees the American go vernment as an evil that only watches out for the interests of the majority and blatantly ignores those who are not part of that general consensus.He believes that a government in Ã¢â¬Å"which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justiceÃ¢â¬ (Civil Disobedience, Page 24) and that is essentially what a democracy represents in his eyes. Contrary to popular belief, he states that all of the achievements that had been accredited to the government were only made possible out of the character of the American people because they embraced the change and put it into action. Slavery was another social injustice that he thought was only in place because of the oppressive nature of the American government.Another one of his purposes throughout the course of his essay is to inspire others to stand up for their values and morals regardless of general opinions. He compared the American government to a machine that when gone astray can only be stopped by the Ã¢â¬Å"counter-frictionÃ ¢â¬ provided by a personÃ¢â¬â¢s dissent. Furthermore, he justified the complete disregard for norms instilled by the government by arguing that he thinks Ã¢â¬Å"we should be men first and subjects afterwardsÃ¢â¬ (Civil Disobedience, Page 26).He states that a democracy, although theoretically supposed to encourage reform, suppresses attempts that donÃ¢â¬â¢t match up to its ideals therefore making it hypocritical and untrustworthy. He backed up his statements by providing his own personal experience of getting arrested for refusing to pay poll tax. In this way he hopes to convince readers to act out against policies that they disagree with enacted by the government. Lastly, he wishes that a government arises that will not be plagued by the impurity of the one he currently a subject of.He believes that the only way a government can justly rule its subjects is Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦until the State comes to recognize the individual as a higher and independent power, from which all its own power and authority are derivedÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Civil Disobedience, Page 348). Although Thoreau admits that democracy is a step forward from other forms of oppressive governments, it is not the final step. He believes that a Ã¢â¬Å"perfect and glorious StateÃ¢â¬ would cherish individuality and never impose ideas on the subjects it governs.Although not plainly stated in the essay, equality is one of the many things that it is unknowingly striving for. Overall, Civil Disobedience is a critique of the wrongful practices of the US government that seeks support in achieving change by refusing to participate in its corrupt practices. Thoreau emphasizes the idea of a government that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t taint the ideas and opinions of the individuals and forces them to conform to values that are not theirs.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Macroeconomics - Term Paper Example More specifically, it is a study of national economies and the determination of national income." According to Wikipedia, "Macroeconomics is the study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, and the general behavior of prices. Macroeconomics can be used to analyze how best to influence policy goals such as economic growth, price stability, full employment and the attainment of a sustainable balance of payments." Macroeconomists build up models that clarify the relationship between such factors as national income, output, expenditure, unemployment, inflation, savings, investment, international trade and international finance. On the other hand, microeconomics is chiefly focused on the procedures of individual agents, such as firms and clients, and how their performance finds prices and quantities in particular markets. In order to try to shun main economic shocks, such as The Great Depression, governments create adjustments through policy changes which they expect will do well in stabilizing the economy. Governments suppose that the achievement of these adjustments is essential to preserve stability and carry on growth. This economic organization is achieved through two types of approaches which are: Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy. While macroeconomics is a wide field of study, there are two areas of study that are representative of the regulation: the effort to realize the causes and consequences of short-run fluctuations in national income which is the business cycle and the effort to realize the determinants of long-run economic increase which is the rise in national income. Macroeconomic models and their forecasts are used by both governments and huge corporations to help in the expansion and assessment of economic strategy and business
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Performance Management and Organizational Goals - Research Paper Example It is important to understand that efforts imparted at every level of the organization need to be in accordance with the goals and values of the organization. Clarity in communicating organizational goals makes it possible for the employees to understand what is expected of them ultimately making their efforts more focused and directed. however, organizations need to support the employees in developing skills and expertise through training activities, setting SMART goals, creating a strong organizational culture, giving them ownership of their work and providing them with adequate tools and equipment to perform well. Thus the relationship between performance management and fulfillment of organizational goals is a direct one which implicates that higher performance management activities are bound to fulfill more organizational goals. There are several drivers to hone employee performance for example technology, strategy, industrial relations, organizational restructuring, change and risk management, management implications etc. for my organization that consists of an apparel manufacturing business, technology ranks the highest amongst these drivers. This is because like every manufacturing business, the end result that is desired I that of production efficiency. By employing the latest technology and imparting adequate raining regarding its use, employees are bound to perform better at work. Workplace satisfaction may also be affected subsequently as the employees feel they are being provided with valuable training that helps them develop their skill set (Gray, 2011). As far as the organizational goals are concerned, it is important to align each sub-goal with the overall strategy. For example, the apparel manufacturing facility selected for this case aims at becoming a recognized name in the local market for the production of baby clothes. For this purpose, the marketing activities need to be directed towards projecting the brand as
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Review - Article Example Although the rates are low, the plan is continued to be criticized for its failure to maintain or raise the GDP and worsen the fiscal outcomes. The plan was only seen to raise the economic level at its initial stages of launch when the GDP increased by 8.3% in 2013-14 as compared to2010-11. It seems that the Prime Minister is trying to force this plan which not according to the opinions of the fiscal policy makers however much harm it might be causing to the economic development. The government should apply fiscal policy to come out of the economic problems itÃ¢â¬â¢s currently facing and the efforts to correct the situation without consideration of the fiscal policy will lead to the argument that discretionary fiscal policy is unnecessary. The fiscal policy is supposed to be sustainable and cyclic with adjustments to balance the economic situations. Like it had been experienced, criticism like those from Keynesians had brought back the economy to its recovery in the 1980 when the retail price inflation was seen to peak at 21.9%. This was reduced by the action of the bank which peaked its rate at 17%. By so doing, the rate of borrowing was raised hence only few people could afford to borrow funds. This reduces the money supply in the market which further raises the value of money thus reducing the inflation level. The prime minister should not expect monetary policy to achieve much since the debt of the country only changed from over-indebted banks to the over-indebted household borrowing. What the government should do is to use direct monetary financing of even larger fiscal deficits as this is seen to be more effective and less damaging than using looser monetary policy. The prime Minister however do not want to use the monetary and the fiscal policy to change the economy and this has made the UK economy by six times weaker th an it was
Friday, July 26, 2019
Lies and Interpersonal Communication in Win, Win - Movie Review Example MikeÃ¢â¬â¢s practice is Ã¢â¬Å"slowÃ¢â¬ and does not earn him enough income. He is having a tough time paying the bills, which is made obvious when he refuses to call someone to take care of the dead tree in front of their property that is threatening to fall on their house. The plumbing and the heating system in his office need repair badly. His back-up system is malfunctioning and he refuses to call an IT person because it would cost money. He wants to shield his wife, Jackie, and their daughters, Abby and Stella, from the problem. Whether by accident or by choice, Mike ends up concocting a series of lies that landed him with more responsibilities and troubles. This paper will assess whether the consequences of MikeÃ¢â¬â¢s lies actually justify his decisions. It is said that lies are often treated Ã¢â¬Å"as the most efficient solution to interpersonal communication problemsÃ¢â¬ (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.309). Deception is usually considered as the right thing to do in circumstances when one desires to avoid conflict, avoid distress, and protect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and/or livelihood, among other acceptable reasons (Levine, Kim, & Hamel, 2010, p.273). These three reasons can be seen in the film Ã¢â¬Å"Win, WinÃ¢â¬ as Mike tries to protect his family from enduring the problems he is currently facing. First, Mike tries to avoid conflict by not telling Jackie that he became LeoÃ¢â¬â¢s guardian. This is to hide from her the fact that he took guardianship for the $1508.00 monthly commission. He also tries to avoid conflict by not informing anyone that he deceptively placed Leo in a nursing home despite the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to stay in his own house. He even openly lied to Leo by telling him that it was the judgeÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to place Leo in a nursing home for some time. Second, Mike tries to avoid distress by not telling Jackie about his real financial status. He hides from her the fact that he cannot call someone to cut down the tre e because he is worried about paying for labor. He tries to tell Jackie that he will cut down the tree with the help of his friend, Terry, but Jackie does not agree with him because she does not know the reason for this. Third, Mike tries to protect himself and his livelihood by telling the judge that he can keep Leo in his home. He lies to the state and the court by saying that he can do a better job in ensuring that LeoÃ¢â¬â¢s will is implemented more properly if he will be the guardian instead of the state. These lies are high stake lies because they hold severe consequences (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.309) for Mike and the people he lied to. To compare, low stake lies are simple lies that usually do not affect the people involved (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.310). For example, lying about a favorite color is a low stake lie. On the other hand, high stake lies affect the people involved in a big way (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.309). This is the case for Mike Ã¢â¬â¢s lies. Had he not lied to avoid conflict and distress, the normally calm household he has might be impacted negatively. Mike would also have been pressured to keep Leo in his home, which technically defeats the purpose for why he volunteered to be LeoÃ¢â¬â¢s guardian in the first place. Obviously, keeping Leo in his home would cost not only more money but also more time from Leo. Furthermore, had Mike not lied to protect himself and his livelihood, he would have gone through more inner turmoil in thinking about how to continue his practice. The effects of MikeÃ¢â¬â¢s lies leak through his non-verbal communication. As a viewer, one could immediately sense through his actions that he is trying to control the situation that his lies created. A good example is in how MikeÃ¢â¬â¢
Thursday, July 25, 2019
International Relations - Essay Example When this state of affairs took place in Europe, jobs were created for the increasing number of workers, but in poor countries, this economic manipulation has had a damaging impact, throwing a number of workers out of production. It thus impedes the launch into sustainable development and self-supported progress (Halevy 1981, 67-68). This is the inherent problem in the relationship between the core and periphery, which Immanuel Wallerstein attempted to resolve. But was he successful in resolving this problem? This essay thus tries to prove that he is indeed so. Overview of WallersteinÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Semi-Periphery Immanuel Wallerstein tries to analyse and understand the growth of the WestÃ¢â¬âthe Ã¢â¬ËcoreÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âand the retarded growth of the third worldÃ¢â¬âthe Ã¢â¬ËperipheryÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âas regards to world system governed by capitalistic structures which has facilitated economic penetration from the core to the periphery. As explained by Wallerstein, this world system which grew during the 16th century has shown the vital and extraordinary attribute of being economically integrated but politically disunited (Jackson & Sorensen 2007, 191). Earlier world systems were characterised by global empires where in massive stretches of lands, peopled by various racial/ethnic groups, were governed by a single political machinery. These empires were successful in acquiring huge quantities of surplus, for a while, by collecting taxes from faraway lands in return for political security (Jackson & Sorensen 2007, 191). Yet, eventually, the cost of sustaining this security (e.g. military expenses) exceeded the economic gains of exploitation and manipulation, and the systems were hence fated to collapse. On the contrary, the European world system has not been hindered by an overruling political body; thus its natural strength, stability, and flexibility. This system, on its own, has been able to acquire surplus which does not have to be used up on the preservation of world order; thus, it on its own has been a major contributor to the growth of capitalism (Baylis, Smith, & Owens 2008). An economic world system was not merely favourable for the growth of capitalism; it was a requisite of it. This is due to the fact that crucial, initial capital accumulation did not take place substantially in the Ã¢â¬ËcoreÃ¢â¬â¢ where in capitalist structures in fact grew, but instead in the Ã¢â¬ËperipheryÃ¢â¬â¢, from which it was embezzled through the world system dynamics for the coreÃ¢â¬â¢s interest and gains. Such initial capital accumulation in the periphery was facilitated because the capitalist ventures of landholders there had enhanced productivity by opening up ventures with low Ã¢â¬Ëper capita outputÃ¢â¬â¢ such as major plantations (Halevy 1981, 68). Forced labour and cash crop, which supported these ventures in the periphery, was hence the important foundation for the preliminary growth of capitalism in core countries. Th e capitalist landholders of the periphery have been trading their products on a global market and thus have been in constant rivalry against each other. The benefits of high output or productivity that they have attained have consequently been equalised by their productsÃ¢â¬â¢ lower prices. Their boosts in efficiency and higher
Imagine you are a columnist or have been contracted to write an opinion piece, for a quality publication such as The Economist o - Assignment Example A good example is what is being witnessed in Greece where the economy has been observed to decrease by 5% every year. Governments should adapt to the idea of spending to boost the economy and also concentrate on balancing the books as the private sector facilitates the economy rise. It is strange how the people who believe in austerity see this as an impossible move and believe that you can not spend when you got a debt. Keynes Theory The stimulus vs. austerity argument arises the debate about if the money supply should be increased or reduced. The difference between function one and function three views of money brings up a big debate. Also the creditors and debtors have a conflict of interest here. Creditors prefer the level three. They are more concerned with the store of value and want their money to increase value and be worth something when they are paid back. Debtors propose to earn the less money and pay back real terms. Multiplier The battle between austerity and stimulus ma inly bases around money as a vital factor that greatly determines there strength. Money functions are sub-divided into three which include: a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a measure store of value. These three functions bring out the difference between the stimulus and austerity. ... 10) Money also functions as a unit of account where it is basically used as a common unit for measuring the difference in value between two commodities or more. For example in barter trade economy, you can exchange two sheep for three goats whereas in the money economy you can value the goats for six shillings. Money functions as a unit of account in that it tells what things are worth. For example a sheep is worth three shillings and a goat at two shillings. The other function of money is as a store of value, in this sense, money is attributed by the fact that it cannot be spend immediately it is gained. The view of money as a physical medium of exchange improves the economy positively. An increase in physical exchanges increases the level of trade thus leads to quick economy growth. If money is perceived as a store of value then it will negatively contribute to the economy .The less the amount of money stored, the more valuable it becomes. Restriction on the amount of money in supp ly increases its value. Problems of Applying A Keynesian Stimulus Everyone would agree with the fact that we are facing an economic crisis. Some people believe that this situation is caused by the government giving promises it can not deliver in the long run and the best way to solve this remedy is by austerity. Whereas other people think that it is due to the private sector inability to create jobs and growth and prefer stimulus .The stimulus folks point to Europe to indicate that austerity has failed. This did not only cure economic problems but it was also rejected at the polls. On the other hand austerity switches blame to the United States and argue that stimulus was disguised. It is strange with
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Central Bank and Monetary Policy - Research Paper Example This paper deals with central bank objectives, instruments and theory behind them. Five objectives of central banks will be described and discussed. Central banksÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives are price stability, stable real growth, financial stability, and interest rate and exchange stability. Then, direct and indirect tools of monetary policy will be described and discussed. Direct tools affect directly the economic agents (Alexander et al., 1996, p.14). Indirect tools affect bank reserves (Alexander et al., 1996, p.14). Direct instruments are: interest rate controls, credit ceilings, and directed lending to the authorities (Alexander et al., 1996, p.14). Indirect instruments are open market operations, reserve requirements, and central bank lending facilities (Alexander et al., 1996, p.14). Advantages and disadvantages of both will be discussed. It will be described how the central banks control the economy through money supply and how price stability is related to other objectives of centr al banks, but only as long as money supply can be controlled by the central bank. Finally, United Arab Emirates (UAE) will be shortly analyzed and the performance of their central bank will be discussed. It will be shown that the central bank of UAEÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is on exchange rate and economic stability. Since the UAE dirham is pegged to the US dollar, inflation cannot be controlled by the central bank of UAE as its monetary policy is restrained by the peg. Instead, it depends on the inflation in the USA, since the USA is free to adjust its monetary policy. ... Today, they service both, the governments and the commercial banks (Cechetti & Schoenholtz, 2011, Chapter 15). By 2011, there were around 170 central banks in the world (Cechetti & Schoenholtz, 2011, Chapter 15). Though central banks around the world nowadays do not all have the same objectives, most share certain characteristics. They are in charge of monetary policy as the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s bank (Cechetti & Schoenholtz, 2011, Chapter 15). In countries where the central bank is largely independent to determine the interest rate on its own, the goals toward which the monetary policy should be used are independent of political events. Central banksÃ¢â¬â¢ goals are following: price stability, stable real growth, financial stability, interest rate and exchange stability. Each will be shortly discussed with regard to its importance for the central bank and the wider economy. Stable real growth is an objective of some central banks. A central bank can through independence from politic al processes and a consistent policy promotes economic stability and decreases uncertainty and fluctuations in economic growth rates (Cechetti & Schoenholtz, 2011, Chapter 15). A central bank may insulate an economy from business cycles through independence by ensuring the long Ã¢â¬â run growth potential is promoted, so that fluctuations in growth rates do not occur, or are minimized (Cechetti & Schoenholtz, 2011, Chapter 15). The long Ã¢â¬â run growth potential is determined by factors such as capital stock, the size of the capital stock and labor force size (Cechetti & Schoenholtz, 2011, Chapter 15). However, active monetary policy is no longer favored by most central banks. Since effects of
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Startups. Young Entrepreneurs - Essay Example And of course there are the "children" that refuse to be seen as incapable members of the society and by chance or knowledge they make it work in the very competitive business market, hit the screen and make a fortune even from their adolescence. This is the case of two young entrepreneurs that share their secret and how they cracked the market. The first case is the one of Dominic McVey. He started his business around the age of 13, when boys have dreams of driving anything that moves. He is now 19 and his business still goes one and flourishes. There could be said that his story is one of sheer luck, but the fact is that he took advantage of a simple fact that happened in his life. By mistake, when he was looking for a Visa credit card, he introduced the word "Viza", which is a brand of scooters. As a young boy he wanted one for himself, but knew that neither he, nor his parents had the money to buy one. He dared to write them an e-mail through which he requested a free one, with the promise that he could sell much more in his town. The answer from the company was that if he bought five, he would get one for free. McVey was not a complete stranger in the field of business and he started gathering the money from different sources, like organizing parties and selling various things on the internet. When he finally got the si x scooters, a new business opportunity opened for him. He sold the five scooters to friends and family and within a week he sold other ten ones. From there the sky was the limit. Some people said that Dominic's business was sheer luck, but when we hear the version of his promotion there are some clear strategies that he followed in order to be successful on a large scale. One of the strong points of Dominic was his great persuasive manner of presenting the product. He admits that "I was very, very competitive. I guess I was very mouthy about other products out there, but all the others out there were crap and expensive." He proved to have a good knowledge of the product and at first he had a great direct marketing strategy, which involved a personal touch and contact with the customers. This touch brought him in the center of attention both for the press and the people in general. The fact that he was liked by the press proved to be essential in his business, as he got the kind of promotion and advertising he never thought to achieve before. Even if as a child he got bored of his scooter, he did not stop selling them. He thought of a way of promoting his pro duct through flyers and was not discouraged when he was chased around by security or the traffic safety people started to be unhappy with so many scooters. His customers had different backgrounds, from the businessmen that bought them as toys, to the persons that used them to commute to their work place. One of the problems that Dominic faced was obviously his age. He managed to overcome this by working mostly on the internet and on the phone. He had good presentations made by his friends and practically this was all he needed. The big companies tended to see him as the little brother and found it a pleasure to share information with his. Anyhow the great advantage of the business was that all the money was his and the only things that were needed to be paid were the phone and internet bills. For Dominic technology filled the gap. The internet marketing strategy worked out. Anyhow, McVey is for now not taking into
Monday, July 22, 2019
Aztec Belief System Essay Throughout the history of mankind civilizations have trusted in the existence of a higher power. Although the existence of a higher power doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t bear as large of an impact on societies like the United States today, it was the focal point of life in many civilizations of the past. A great example of a civilization that was extremely reliant on the connection between humans and higher powers was the Aztecs. The Aztecs believed that they were connected to the universe by a sacred energy. They believed this energy was the source of all natural events and if it were unbalanced, they would suffer. In order to maintain the balance, the Aztecs performed ceremonial sacrifices, bloodletting, and other forms of violent cultural behavior. The connection between the Aztecs and the universe is evident among their myths about how humans were created. One creation myth is the story of the goddess Tlaltecutli. In the story Tlaltecutli was ripped apart by the gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca and her body parts were used to create the earth and the other gods. This event caused Tlaltecutli to desire human hearts and she would not be quiet until they were brought to her. Nor would she bear fruit until she had been drenched in human blood. Another creation myth, and the most common legend amongst the Aztecs, was that the god Quetzalcoatl descended into the underworld and retrieved the bones and ashes of previous human beings in order to recreate humanity because the universe had been destroyed after the fourth Sun went out. Quetzalcoatl ground the bones into powder and used his blood to fertilize it and create humans. Ã The Aztecs also had a myth that explained how the Sun and moon were created. According to legend, the gods Nanautzin and Tecuziztecatl sacrificed themselves by jumping into a fire, which turned them into the Sun and moon. The other gods also sacrificed themselves to provide nourishment for the Sun. However the Sun and the Earth still had an insatiable craving for human blood, therefore war was created to satisfy the SunÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s interesting about these creation myths is that they all included some form of death, sacrifice, or blood shed in order to create something. The creation myths shaped the foundation for why Aztecs placed so much emphasis on violent cultural behavior. In the Aztec society, human sacrifice was extremely common. This is because sacrifices were the main method of creating cosmic order between humans and the universe. Pubic sacrifices took place at the beginning of each of the 18 twenty-day months. The sacrifices consisted of mostly captured warriors, but in rare cases included children and young women. The purpose of public sacrifice was to acquire the divine forces embedded in the physiology of human beings in order to nourish the Sun, Earth, and rain. Aztec ceremonies consisted of days of ritual preparation, ceremonial sacrifice, and acts of nourishing the gods and the community. Priests carried out the sacrifices, which included many forms such as decapitation, burning, hurling from great heights, strangulation, and arrow sacrifice. The most common was the removal of the heart. The heart and the head were the two most important body parts to the Aztecs. Tonalli was a type of energy that came from the head and determined the shape of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s temperament and destiny. Tonalli was first acquired as an embryo in a female uterus. The Sun was the most powerful way to increase tonalli. It was believed that hair prevented tonalli from leaving the body. Therefore hair was a major prize in warfare. When heads were decapitated during ceremonies, the city as a whole gained tonalli. Teyolia, or Ã¢â¬Å"diving fireÃ¢â¬ , was the energy that came from the heart and determined a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sensibilities and thinking patterns. When a person died his or her tayolia traveled to the world of the dead, or Ã¢â¬Å"sky of the SunÃ¢â¬ . Tayolia gives energy to the Sun, which is why heart sacrifices were so popular. Ã Giving hearts and heads wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only donation made to the higher powers. Bloodshed was also seen as a type of nourishment. The Aztecs believed that spilling blood was vital to please the gods and to ensure natural forces such as strong harvests. Another Aztec creation myth, the story of Tezcatlipoca, gives strong insight into the importance of bloodshed. In the story the body of Tezcatlipoca was cut into pieces and divided over the four directions of the world, with his blood flowing into the center. The divine blood redistributed energy to animals, body parts, vegetation, and the calendar. Although The Aztecs believed that by giving the hearts and heads of their victims to the gods and the universe, they would be blessed with gifts like bountiful harvests, strength in war, and healthy lives, they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t practice sacrifice just to receive blessings; they also feared that the universe would be destroyed. The Aztecs believed that there had been four previous ages that the universe passed through prior to the present age, the Fifth Age. At the end of each age, the Sun went out and caused a catastrophic event that destroyed all life on Earth. In the Second Age, for example, it was believed that the beings that lived there were carried away by the wind. (AD1, p. 4) The fear of the Sun going out again and ending the Fifth Age is one the main catalysts for explaining why the Aztecs placed so much importance on human sacrifice, warfare, and other violent cultural behavior. In order to ensure that the Sun wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go out again, the Aztecs participated in what is known as the New Fire Ceremony. It took place once every fifty-two years and was used to ensure that the Sun would last for another fifty-two years. The rebirth was achieved by the heart sacrifice of a brave, captured warrior specifically chosen by the king. The ceremony began at the top of a mountain with a priest cutting out the warriorÃ¢â¬â¢s heart and throwing it into a fire. The people in the village would then cut themselves and splatter their blood in the direction of the fire. The fire was then brought down the mountain and the people blistered themselves with fire. The Aztecs believed that if they did not perform the ceremony properly to nourish the Sun, it would go out and the demons of the darkness would descend to eat all human beings. The New Fire Ceremony is a great example of how the Aztecs viewed the connection between human beings and the cosmos. The role of humankind in the Aztec society was very pre-determined. Men were devoted to warfare and females were devoted to the household. Warfare was extremely important to Aztec men because it was used as a way to appease the gods with the hearts of prisoners of war. Ã It was also used a way to rank the importance and worth of a man. Men higher up in the military rank received more luxuries and entitlements than men of lower ranks. For example, a top war commander, or Ã¢â¬Å"quauhpilliÃ¢â¬ , was given land by the ruler and could run schools for commoners. Ã Military service was a compulsory obligation by all free men. The AztecÃ¢â¬â¢s innate desire for combat is a direct impact of the believed connection between conflict and nourishment for the universe. When a male child was born, he is dedicated to the Sun, and Ã¢â¬Å"the flowery deathÃ¢â¬ of the warrior in battle or on the killing stone. This shows that the Aztecs believed that the only honorable death for a male is on the battlefield or being sacrificed on another tribes killing stone. The Aztec devotion to the universe was so strong that they not only believed that they had to sacrifice others in battle to please the gods; they had to sacrifice themselves as well. The culture and beliefs of the Aztec civilization were much different than the culture and beliefs of society today. Human sacrificing no longer occurs because it is considered cruel and unusual punishment. Humans do not believe that sacrifices and bloodshed are necessary to please a higher power. Although there are certain religions that believe that the way humans act bear some consequence on things like karma and where we go in the afterlife, it is rare to find a society in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world that believes wholeheartedly that there is a direct connection between humanÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, the divine, and natural forces, like the Aztecs believed. Science and technology have allowed humans to understand that we can control all aspects of processes such as growing crops and that the gods have no effect on it. Warfare, although still important, does not have nearly as strong of an impact on humans today. Warfare is only needed for protection, to defend other countries, or in certain areas of the world, to attempt to settle religious differences like the Shiite and Sunni Muslims. Today, men and women have the choice to grow up and become whatever they want. Men are not required to serve in the military and women have the ability to do more than just take care of the household. The main difference between the Aztecs and humans today is that for the Aztecs, the connection to the universe was the most important aspect of life, while today creating a family, treating others fairly, and having proper morals are the most important aspects of life. The majority of people just want to make the most of their lives on Earth while they still have time, and depending on their beliefs, if they do it right they will reach an afterlife when they die. The Aztecs were one of mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s most interesting civilizations. They devoted their lives to pleasing the universe and believed that sacrifice and bloodshed were the best ways of doing it. They attempted to control every aspect of their lives in order to keep the connection between humans and the universe in balance. The Aztec belief system was very extreme. No other civilization has put so much emphasis on sacrifices, and more than likely, no civilization ever will again.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Importance of Effective Project Management Project management is applied to various tasks in our lives and work. it provides skills and knowledge that are used to control and manage the introduction of new initiatives or changes. Projects are determined in terms of the time, scope, procurement, quality and cost (Clement and Gido, 2009, p.13). It entails a number of activities that must be done in the specified time, under a fixed budget with the given resources. It is noted that project management is not limited to organizational or institutional initiatives but can be applied to personal and school items. The expectations are that the acquired project must be handled with appropriate project management tools and techniques in order to achieve the project goals. There are important aspects of any project; one of the most important of these is the project manager. The project manager is tasked with the responsibility of making sure that the principles, tools and techniques are applied effectively to make sure that the project succeeds. In this respect, as a student doing a dissertation, I will be the project manager in charge of my project. My responsibility will be to make sure that the project principles are observed in the research proposal and the final report. The project will take the time line between 10th September and the 20th November of this academic year. This time will be used to write the research proposal, collect data, analyze, write reports and make the necessary corrections as suggested by my supervisors. The project will encompass any resources in terms of time and finance as it is available to me. The project will involve several people, the project manager, who will also the researcher, fellow students who will be consult ed, and the supervisor will give expert opinion. Principles of Project Management Significance of the Study The first principles entail the purpose of the project, which is demonstrated through, the significance of the study to the society, the contributions it makes to current knowledge and the outcomes of the reports (Clement and Lewis, 2006, p.17). Therefore, the dissertation proposal and reports must address the significance of the recommendations as they apply to the society, knowledge base and the research questions. This then will entail the identification of appropriate research questions. Research questions to be addressed in this dissertation will address the main and specific objectives. They will ask on how much the topic is relevant to current societal and research environments. The dissertation must address the applicability of the recommendations and the viability of the research method. If the reports are based on sound academic principles the dissertation them must be able to defend the ideas proposed. Relevance of the study At the same time the dissertation must be relevant to current academic standards. This will be proven through the literature review which gives strong background of the research problem that is based on other researches. This section will reveal the strengths and weaknesses of other researches and how the dissertation will address and resole them in the report. At this point relevance will also be proven with a problem statement and explained through the provision of the significance of the problem. The project cannot exist without the identification of a problem or the reasons of having the project. The significance of the problem is sued to explain with relevant academic and theoretical support the reasons for the project. Relevance is used to explain to any donor of the project, support group, and programme the importance of the project. Feasibility of the dissertation The project must also be feasible. This is achieved through the identification and use of locally available resources like time, finance and human resources in the project development. The dissertation will take into consideration the resources in terms of finance; time allocated by the institution, research materials available in the library, online resources and classroom materials. Furthermore, feasibility will be achieved through a listing of the activities that will be carried out during the research stage. At this point the project will utilize any research method that will be deemed fit to collect the necessary data. Some of the research methods that will be used by this report are like data analysis, qualitative analysis, questionnaires and interviews. The feasibility will not be complete without identification of the limitations (Lewsi, 2006, p.14). The possible limitations of the study will entail the difficulties the study discovered in the research methods, the data analy sis report of the findings, the analysis of the budget, time and resources. Accuracy of the Dissertation The dissertation project must be accurate for it to qualify as an academic material. This will be achieved though its ability to be congruent with the theoretical predictions of available data and studies that have been achieved in the past (Lock, 2007, p.23). The reports must also make reference to expert work and must cite each literature review with proper expert references. At the end of the report proper verification of data must be made by referencing the source of the data, techniques used to acquire the data, methods used to quantify and analysis the data. Accountability The dissertation must also be accountable, therefore the project manager, or the research student will make detailed accounts of the actions taken and the decisions made during the research. At the same time this will be achieved through justification of any regress made from the original research design this will then be supported by any acknowledgements of any limitations. Objectives of the dissertation The objectives of the dissertation are only said to be viable if they meet a certain standard. The first is that they must be specific; this means that each objective must have a detailed point of focus. Therefore, in the dissertation specific objectives will be attained if they mention; the topic of the project, the time for meeting a certain plan, the methodologies in the research, the data collecting tools, data analysis and any other detailed account that relates to the project. At the same time they must be measurable, which is achieved through the use of the word have gained, achieved. The objectives will also be assignable to the relevant persons related to the project and must be realistic in attainment. This means that they are within budget, time slot and within the qualifications of the project participants (Kerzner, 2009, p.13). Project Management Tools The project research will take into consideration several project management tools and techniques. These are supposed to make sure the project is successful; therefore the project will be undertaken according to the following project management tools (Haynes, 2002, p.45). Resources The first resource is finance which will entail the amount of money available to the project. This is either from funding from the department or faculty or the amount of money in the pocket. Planning for this will entail a detailed budget that will entail the identification of all the functions, aspects, resources and items for the project that need to be purchased. It will also give the details of any outside help in terms of an analysts, internet access or any material assistance used in the project. It should also consider the finance used by the project owner for transportation, and expenses when conducting research. Time will be accounted for through the creation of a time plan, or a work plan. These will entail the identification and listing of all the steps that will be followed from proposal writing, presentation, defending, data collection, analysis, report writing and presentation. Every step between the two will be listed down and a time frame allocated to each (Hamel, 2007, p.32). The next item in the resources is persons who are important to the project. The first person is the project manager; I will be in charge of the project as it entails my dissertation. I have the responsibility of coming up with the project title, the identification of the problem, objectives and goals. I should also give a rationale for the study and support my ideas with appropriate academic literature with proper expert citation and referencing. I should come up will relevant research methodologies as applied to the field of study and with the help of literature materials I will be able to generate research questions that will guide me as I collect and analyze data. My duty in the whole process will be to write the proposal, defend it, collect and analyze data and write a report of the findings. The other relevant person is my supervisor and any faculty staff who can offer me academic guidelines in the development of the project. This supervisor/s is a member of the faculty staff who is in charge of the course work. They will assist in the guidance and academic advice on the development of the project. They are supposed to go through the reports and give their opinions and recommendations. Furthermore, together with the examination body they will grade the paper accordingly. Their knowledge and skills in academic research will be useful in the dissertation. In this list is any person who will assist in the collection and analysis of the data. Meanwhile my fellow students will be a vital part of the project as they can offer discussion forums to help in the development of the project. Gantt charts This will show all the activities in the project process, it will entail the budgets, the time schedule, the project plans, the reports and presentations of the projects and the time frame for each action. This is inconsideration that the time for the project will run from September to November. This chart will show a simple analysis of the plan, work plan and budget of the whole project. Strategic Management This will offer important themes and focus for the future directions of the project. This technique requires that the project focuses on the objectives, goals, missions and strategies in the implementation. Strategy then will entail the identification of the dissertation objectives; this will be covered in the main and specific objectives. One of the main objectives of the project is to make sure that the selected problem satisfied and solved using appropriate research methods and following expert referencing. The only means by which strategic management is achieved is if the project follows four main activities as proposed by the techniques. One of them is the reviewing and the definition of the organizational missions. For this step the dissertation will them make sure it reviews and defines the missions of the project. Every participant of the project and I included must make sure that the project achieves its goals. Therefore, the proposal stage must clearly define the goals and mission. The second logical step will be the setting of the long term goals and objectives. The identification and creation of the proposal marks the first step in the setting of the short term goals, these will then help in the achievement of the long term goals and objectives. Objectives that are deemed to be long term are those linked to the end product attained at the end of the project period. The third step is the analysis and the formulation of the strategies that will help reach these goals. These are seen in the work plan or time plan, that has clear identified main activities and the time allocated for each. A time plan is a means by which this dissertation will lay down its strategies. However, to make sure that the technical goals are achieved the dissertation will include a methodology that will entail every research method technique and plan that can give the desired results. This will also involve the methods and techniques that will be used in the collection and analysis of the data. It is important that the planning stage remembers to incorporate this in the strategy plan for the dissertations and report plan (Cleland, Lewis, 2006, p.20). This will entail in depth detailing of the persons, methods, tools and resources that will be used to collect, analyse, store and present the data ad reports. In project management, a project team is responsible for the enhancement of stakeholders ability to contribute and augmenting the functioning of the team as a group. Owing to the simplicity and duration of the project, the projects team will consist of ten people in possession of diverse skills. The projects manager is responsible for managing the project at hand. In this case, owing to the experience of the strategic manager in strategy articulation, he will form a fundamental addition of the projects team. The marketing manager will be part of the projects team due to his marketing abilities, which will augment marketing of the party to different stakeholders. The financial manager will be in charge of the projects finances. The productions team leader can act comfortably as the projects team leader as the project needs a team leader in addition to the projects manager (Phillips, 2010, p.41). The project will engage two members of staff for technical expertise on the technological aspects. These staffs will be responsible for ensuring that proper procedures are observed. Moreover, two sales personnel will be involved in the project as part of the efforts of the human resource to ensure adequate staffing. Therefore, the two sales executives will make up part of the projects team due to their ability to find solutions for increasing the sales volumes. Their ability will be valuable in formulating solutions to the risks that may plague the project. The facilities manager will be part of the projects team due to his evaluation ability. The final member of the projects team will be another employee from the projects staff who will work as the projects developer. This selection is based on a selection process checklist conducted from the companys employees profiles, which clearly indicate the expertise of each employee. After the selection of the projects team, a projects chart er will be prepared to allow the stakeholders to understand the specific roles of the projects team. The selection of the projects team augments proper and efficient management of the project. Finally, the last stage will be the implementation of the strategies through the projects. In this phase the dissertation will make use of the plans and goals that were laid down in the planning stage. it will then follow the time plan as it was designed, adhere to the budget of the project and follow every short term goals and plans in order to achieve the main goal. Dissertation Project plan The project will therefore follow the following project management process; Terms of reference: these are the specification of the project. They will entail the description of the purpose, objectives, aims and deliverables. It will also include the statement of the parameters; time, budget, scope, range, authority and territory of the project. The net item is the statement of the people who will be involved and how they will be involved. Finally there must be break points in the process in order to give a review and give progress reports to the faculty and supervisor. The next aspect is the planning of the project. This is the various stages that will be involved in the project development. Project time plan and costs must be developed. The project team must be involved in the planning and development stage. The identification of the project management tools like Gantt chart and the critical flow diagrams. Project strategy planning and implementation Project reports and progress reports. Discussion As it has been realized the success of the project will lie in the manner in which the project manager will manage the entire project. Project management will entail the identification of the tools and techniques that are relevant to the project. In this project the resources like persons, time, and finance are important. It is expected that the project will be feasible and relevant as an academic material. The project must meet academic standards be relevant to current society needs and academic studies. Project management principles have been identified that can help in the management of the project. Principle players in the system have been identified d incorporated into the planning and implementation. Project management marries well with risk management. Therefore, risk management is part of strategic management and a strategic manager is the best-qualified personnel to deal with risk management. Management of finances and resource is very fundamental for the successful completion of the project. This is because the allocation of the resources and finances is based on the stipulations of the budget and for a project to be completed successfully; it has to run as per its budget. The finance manager is qualified for financial management as his financial role in the company is based on financial qualifications, which can be utilized successfully in managing the projects finances. Owing to his marketing skills, the marketing manager is qualified for marketing the party to the other stakeholders, as he possesses the best skills that can convince the stakeholders on the importance of attending the party (Roman, 2009, p.74). The facilities manager is always in charge of managing the diff erent aspects of the companys facilities. While developing the stages to be followed in project management, it is important to ensure that imperative aspects such as risk management, human resource capital and strategic management is strictly incorporated into the initial stages prior to the actual project activities. These stages are usually depicted in the Gannt Chart. Most important of all is perhaps the timeline allocated for the project. All projects run on a specific timeline, which is determined, by the urgency and number of activities that need to be done to perform a particular activity. Moreover, communication is an integral part of the project (Meredith Mantel, 2010, p.29). It encompasses the timely production, compilation, broadcasting, storage and clearance of project information. This requires the utilization of a strong communication network. The person in charge of the communication network has to be in possession of the appropriate technological knowledge of different communication lines. For this reason, t he staff member allocated to deal with communications is qualified for due to his vast experience while working as a sound engineer. The team leader is the most appropriate person to carry out project evaluation based on his role of working successfully with teams. His team leadership skills enable him to work comfortably with each team leader hence, acquiring at a faster rate, the feedback required for the evaluation of the project. Documentation of the project required a person who is qualified in document preparation, the staff member in charge of the preparations for the production documents is highly qualified for the projects documentation. Owing to the fact that strategic management includes risk management, the strategic manager is highly qualified for risk management as it encompasses the scope of his role. Having been involved in a workshops dealing with risk management, I am qualified for joint risk management with the strategic manager. In addition, to the contributions of the strategic manager, the contributions of the whole project team are fundamental for the development of a contingency plan in risk management. The final role of a project manager encompasses procurement management in which the resources required for the project are procured and secured from the suppliers. I have acted as the company procurement officer before the current procurement officer took up this position; therefore, I have the skills required for procurement management. The different leadership and management skills I posses will enable me to act accordingly in my position as a projects manager. Quality management is also an important aspect of project management that should not be overlooked. The quality of a project is fundamental in measuring the projects success. Quality parameters have to be met by the project or exceeded in terms of exceptional projects. The quality parameters set for the project at hand is such that the quality of the party equalizes with the quality provided by four-star hotels. The human resource must be of extremely high quality to ensure that they deliver a high standard of service delivery, hence bolster the success of the project (Kerzner, 2009, p.33). For this reason, the company should provide human capital whose quality amounts to the value it attaches to its employees. I am highly qualified for this role because I have managed to produce previous projects whose quality exceeded that stipulated by the set quality parameters. Conclusion The project will entail a dissertation that will be developed following the rules of project management. It has taken into consideration the tools and techniques that are used in project management. The identification of goals, objectives and the strategic management process has been analyzed. Furthermore, it has taken into consideration the principles of project management; purpose, relevance, feasibility, accuracy and accountability. Budgeting and work plans have been identified as tools that can be used to manage the resources of time and finance. Meanwhile tools like Gantt charts and flow diagrams have been utilized to depict the strategic plan of the project.
Who Was Benjamin Franklin Religion Essay Benjamin Franklins ideas on God and human nature were significantly different from the puritan norm at the time. Ã While Franklin saw God as a good and wise creator, the puritans feared Him as an almighty being. Ã The puritans saw human nature as the ultimate conduit for sin, while Franklin believed that humans as products of God were good at heart. Ã Franklin believed in a God discrete from both mans activity on earth and the puritan ideal of who He was, and in humans not as slaves to sin and redemption, but as masters of their own destiny. Puritanism was a very widely held belief system in the early colonies. A direct descendant of Calvinism, Puritanism had strong roots among a vast number of the colonists throughout early American settlements. As a sect of Christianity, they believed in the bible as the word of God, and Jesus as Gods son. It was common for puritans of the time to fear God and look at all misfortune that befell them as punishment for their sins. And as it struck my hand, so it struck my heart; for I suddenly rose up and went into a wood; and there I cried bitterly, and now concluded that God, God had found me out. (Dane, 4) The puritan God can almost be seen as a tyrannical leader; one who strikes fear into the hearts of His subjects, yet demands their love and respect. Franklins semi-present creator-God was distinctly different from that of the punishing overseer of the puritans. Franklin was one of few deists at the time. It is said that had he published his deism tract thirty years earlier, he would have risked imprisonment and execution in the British Empire. The norms of the time, the puritans, were an overwhelming majority. The puritan God was always there, always watching over his creations. As John Dane repeated from his mother, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Go where you will, God he will find you out. (Dane, 2) The puritans spent their lives with the ever present notion of Gods wrath hanging over their shoulders. Franklins God was not the same entity. He was the creator, and that to Franklin was as far as His relationship with man went. God did not inspire man to write the books of the bible, nor did he send His Son to die on a cross for mans sin. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦after doubting by turns of several pointsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ I began to doubt of Revelation itself . (Franklin, 5) Franklins God gave man life and free will, and then gave him the reigns to control his own destiny. The puritan conception of human nature was based on the idea of original sin. Original sin is a term used to describe the bibles story of Adam and Eve eating the fruit from the tree of good and evil under temptation of Satan. Puritans believed that because of this original sin, humans are all inherently corrupt and impure of mind; because man is born into sin, it is impossible for him to escape it. Your best duties are tainted, poisoned, and mingled with some sin, and therefore are most odious in the eyes of a holy God. (Wigglesworth, 4) In the eyes of the church, the only redeeming quality of human nature was that they themselves were made by God. They were obedient to God and His word because they were afraid of his punishment. The only hope the puritans had in life was that they might be chosen in Gods eyes as worthy of redemption. Franklin saw the nature of humans in a very different light. While he did look to God for wisdom and insight, he believed that man could be good without God. He came to this conclusion not with religion, but with intellect and logic. He created a list of thirteen virtues that he believed could bring a man to moral perfection. These too were not created with any particular religious sect in mind, but rather with the idea that all people could better themselves through them. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦that vicious actions are not hurtful because they are forbidden, but forbidden because they are hurtful, the nature of man alone consideredÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Franklin, 15) He believed that evil or morally wrong actions were wrong, not because God said so, but because they were hurtful to humanity. Human nature by itself was not corrupt, and it was possible for a man to be truly good. Franklins beliefs on human nature were different in many ways than that of the puritans. While the puritans saw man as essentially evil from conception, Franklin saw man as able to create his own destiny. While both parties believed in God as being important to the life of men, Franklin saw his importance as more of a guide, and less as a strict path like that of the puritans. The Puritans had only one way to achieve completion in life; to earn Gods redemption. Franklin believed that as man tried to be a better person, he was achieving his destiny in life. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦tho I never arrived at the perfection I had been so ambitious of obtainingÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ I was, by the endeavor, a better and happier man than I otherwise should have been if I had not attempted itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Franklin, 14) The puritans did not believe this was the case, as good works to them meant nothing if God did not give favor. Your good duties cannot save you, yet your bad works will damn you. (Wiggleswort h, 4) The separate parties idea of human nature was directly affected by their respective ideas of God. The puritans believed in a God that was almighty and all encompassing. They thought of themselves as unworthy beasts without purpose, and only with the favor of God did they have any chance of happiness on this earth or after it. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦everyone sinned in Adam and everyone deserves eternal deathÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Wigglesworth, 4) Franklin saw a God that was less involved in the lives of men. He put much more emphasis on the worth of a persons works and endeavors, and less on whether or not this person had been chosen by God. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦there was in [my scheme] no mark of any of the distinguishing tenants of any particular sect. I had purposely avoided themÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ that it might be serviceable to people of all religionsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (Franklin, 15) Both groups ideals were founded in belief, and were distinctly different because of the differences in the belief of each re spective God. As much as the puritan ideals were similar to that of the deist Benjamin Franklin, the differences of each faith is what defines them. Franklin believed in a God based in logic, while the puritans God was founded in faith and tradition. From this belief in separate Gods, separate belief in human nature arose; the puritans believing in Human nature as evil and Franklin believing in it as independent and just. Franklin found that the path to righteousness could be obtained through good works that bettered humanity; while the puritans believed that only strict adherence to the guidelines set forth by God could bring salvation. Each point of view has its own foundations and each gives historians a different yet equally relevant perspective on life in the early American colonies.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Reflecting on the Dead In Katherine MansfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Garden PartyÃ¢â¬ and in D.H. LawrenceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Odour of Chrysanthemums,Ã¢â¬ two women were in a situation where death was literally at their feet. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Garden Party,Ã¢â¬ Laura finds herself contemplating the dead body of Mr. Scott, a man of lower class who lived at the bottom of the hill from her house. In Ã¢â¬Å"Odour of Chrysanthemums,Ã¢â¬ Elizabeth finds herself contemplating the dead body of her husband, Walter. Although the relationships these women shared with the dead men were completely opposite, they both had striking similarities in the ways that they handled the situation. Both women ignored the feelings of the families of the deceased, failed to refer to the deceased by name, felt shame in the presence of the deceased and both had a life and death epiphany. Although Laura and Elizabeth were in two similar yet very different situations, they both had contemplated the dead men, acted in similar ways, fel t similar emotions and both ended up having an epiphany regarding life and death at the end of the story. No real concern was shown in either story for family members of the dead. In fact the only concern shown by Laura and Elizabeth was only concern for themselves. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Garden Party,Ã¢â¬ Laura did not once show any consideration for Mr. ScottÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Even in the presence of the widow and her sister, Laura never mentioned anything about feeling sorry for them about their loss. The most concern shown for Mr. ScottÃ¢â¬â¢s family was before a party that her family was throwing when she questioned, Ã¢â¬Å"what the band would sound like to that poor womanÃ¢â¬ (Mansfield 2429). Laura also never showed concern for Mr. ScottÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Her reference to Mr. ScottÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and children as the Ã¢â¬Å"poor woman and those little childrenÃ¢â¬ (Mansfield 2430), was the only sympathy the widow and her family received from her. Laura seemed only concerned with how Ã¢â¬Å"terribly nervousÃ¢â¬ she was and that she was being watched with Ã¢â¬Å"staring eyesÃ¢â¬ (Mansfield 2432). She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even acknowledge that Mr. Scott had a family that was suffering. Elizabeth, in Ã¢â¬Å"Odour of Chrysanthemums,Ã¢â¬ lacked the same condolence. Unlike Laura, this was her own family she lacked sympathy for. She never expressed any responsibilty about how her children were going to handle the loss of their father. At the end of the story is the only time Elizabeth expressed concern for her children ... ..., but Laura saw a beauty in death which helped her to see the beauty of life. Elizabeth realized the frightening possibility that life was just an immediate placement and that her reality resided in death. Even though Laura and Elizabeth were uncompassionate towards the families, failed to call the deceased by their names, felt shame and had a life and death epiphany, both women had different stances and reasons concerning their actions. The relationship and the personal or social difference that Laura and Elizabeth shared with the dead men were all factors in how they acted, reacted and lastly how these affected the epiphany that the two women experienced throughout and at the end of these stories. Works Cited Lawrence, D.H. Ã¢â¬Å"The Odour of Chrysanthemums.Ã¢â¬ The Norton Anthology of English Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2000. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2316-2330. Mansfield, Katherine. Ã¢â¬Å"The Garden Party.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Norton Anthology of English Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2000. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2423-2433.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Antidumping and the WTO While antidumping doesn't get a lot of press, it is certainly one of the biggest issues that the WTO is dealing with today. During the recent WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle, much was mage about protesters who were demanding higher environmental standards or international labor standards. Little was mentioned about antidumping. However, In the midst of the many demonstrators there were steel workers and members of other union organizations like the AFL-CIO who were there to defend US antidumping laws. Antidumping regulation was a major issue for Seattle as it is for the organization of the WTO in general. From the inception of the WTO, there has been controversy over antidumping laws from diverse groups. Some countries feel that other countries place antidumping measures on products that have not really been dumped. Since the 1994 Uruguay Round, many developing nations feel that they have been unfairly targeted for antidumping penalties by the industrialized nations. Count ries such as Japan and South Korea have also called for reforms. The US, being the largest economy in the world tends to be on the receiving end of much of this controversy about its national antidumping laws. Adding to the confusion, not many cases brought to the WTO panels have been settled as of yet. There are many complaints about antidumping procedures, and some economic graphs can be used to demonstrate these complaints about antidumping and the WTO's antidumping laws. In 1995, the World Trade Organization was born out of the Uruguay Round of trade talks. The WTO has upwards of 123 member countries and new members are always in the process of joining. The WTO is an organization that basically a more formal extension of the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) which had existed for around 50 years. However, the WTO agreements also cover trade issues not in the GATT agreement, such as trade in services and intellectual property rights. Also, WTO member countries must ag ree to all the obligations of its agreements. The WTO also features binding panel resolutions. Countries must accept the panel rulings; under GATT that was not necessarily true. Still, WTO embodies the same spirit as GATT. It favors trade liberalization and globalization over trade barriers. In particular, one main objective of the WTO is to reduce trade restrictions, and o... ...tidumping , this paper restricted its examination to only half of the antidumping story; there are many arguments for the antidumping laws that are currently on the books. No one is suggesting that the US or any other industrialized nation let its industries be unfairly put out of business, if that is truly the case at hand. Still, as the Seattle Round demonstrates, the WTO's antidumping laws seem to have satisfied to few countries. Given the spirit of its trade barrier reduction goals, the WTO should make sure it gets its antidumping rules right. Bibliography: "Consultations on FTAA and WTO Negotiations." Consultations with Canadians. 4 Oct. 99 . Dumler, Christopher M. "Anti-dumping Laws Trash Supercomputer Competition." Cato Briefing Papers. 14 Oct. 1997. . Griswold, Daniel T. "Industry Sets Steel Trap for U.S. Economy." Cato Center for Trade Policy Studies Articles. 23 October 1998.. Hindley, Brian and Patrick A. Messerlin. 29 Nov. 1999. "Japan Wants New Trade Talk." Reuters. 29 Oct. 1999. K & S Law. "Combating Injurious Imports." 29 Nov. 1999. Raghavan, Chakravarthi. "Call for Revision of Anti-dumping, Subsidy Rules. " Third World Network. .
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Introduction. Government exists in order to organise a society or nation into a manageable unit. It seeks to formulate laws for the purpose of instituting a fair, equitable and just society in which individual citizens expect to live safely being organised both to contribute to and to benefit from sound governing policy. Broadly speaking policy consists of three overhead functions which are: policy making, policy implementation and policy analysis and evaluation. The task of this assignment is to concentrate only on policy-making with particular reference to the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. The policy-making process has three main steps, namely policy initiation; policy formulation and policy approval. Policy making, is one of the six administrative enabling functions which should be done in an orderly manner. Firstly, the nature and place of policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa is explained and discussed by using definitions to explain the various terminologies in order to understand to concept of policy-making. Secondly, the first step of policy making process, namely, policy initiation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa, is discussed. Policy initiation has three steps, namely becoming aware of the problem, describing the problem and the collection of information regarding the elimination of the high crime rate. Thirdly, the second step of the policy making process namely, policy formulation with reference to the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa needs to be examined. Policy formulation has six steps, namely, liaison with interested parties, the processing of information, the setting of objectives, determining the priorities, considering the alternatives, the survey of financial resources. Fourthly, the final step of policy making is discussed, namely policy approval for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. A scientific approach is used in this assignment. Each step contains facts followed by an explanation of the facts, the application of the theory by using the elimination of high crime in South Africa as an example and lastly deductions are made at the end of each section. Sources that were used were taken from various books and via the internet. In order to understand the policy-making process the nature and place of policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa is to be discussed. 1.The nature and place of policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. Policy-making is one of the six administrative enabling functions. In order to understand public policy-making it is necessary to define and explain the following concepts: administrative enabling function: public policy and policy making. 1.1.The meaning of administrative as an enabling function. Meiring (2001:48) explains that the Ã¢â¬Å"enabling functions can be divided into six main groups, for example, policy-making: the creation of structures and posts; financial provision; personnel provision; determining work procedures and determining control measures and standards. Meiring (2001:47) further states that Ã¢â¬Å"no activity can be carried out, no goal pursued or objective achieved without the continuous provision of indispensable and specific meansÃ¢â¬ , for example resources. In order for service delivery to take effect, policies need to be instituted. Policies are the objectives of government and therefore it is necessary for the resources to have a continuous uninterrupted flow. Resources are the commodities used in the production of goods and services. In this case theÃ government supplies a service to the community and therefore needs the resources to fulfil this obligation. Resources referred to would be human and capital resources. Capital resources are, for example, buildings, vehicles and finance. The uses of auxiliary functions, for example, the usage of computers, are supportive in role and a necessity in order for the South African Police Service to be efficient and effective in the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 1.2. The meaning of public policy. The nature of policy is a multidimensional and there are various definitions of what public policy is. According to Fox, Schwella and Wissink (1991:27-28) the following basic fundamentals of public policy can be identified and are summarised below:Policy is developed by government role players, Ã¢â¬Å"although non-government role players may influence the policy formulation and developmentÃ¢â¬ and public policy is a Ã¢â¬Å"purposive or goal-orientated action rather than random or chance behaviourÃ¢â¬ (Fox, Schwella and Wissink: 1991:27). Hanekom (1987:7) further elaborates and describes policy-making as Ã¢â¬Å"the activity preceding the publication of a goalÃ¢â¬ and it is therefore a Ã¢â¬Å"formally articulated goal that the legislator intends pursuing with society.Ã¢â¬ Botes et al (1992:191) further describes public policy making as being the Ã¢â¬Å"systematic actionsÃ¢â¬ which should be taken to achieve the goals of the relevant institution. Fox, Schwella and Wissink (1991:27-28) further state that public policy generally consists of a series of decisions taken jointly by politicians and/or officials rather than individual decisions. Public policy is a Ã¢â¬Å"future-orientatedÃ¢â¬ , changing document which is aimed at the general welfare of the public (Fox, Schwella and Wissink: 1991:29). Thus, public policy is a systematic goal-orientated action that is developed by governmental bodies and officials in consultation with the public, which emerges in response to public demand. Public policy is a future-orientated document which not only shows the statement of intent by government but interprets the values of society. Therefore the policy for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa would be to enhance a safer and moreÃ secure environment for its citizens. 1.3. The meaning of policy making. Cloete (1998:139) explains that for the Ã¢â¬Å"purpose of public administration the term policy-making should be used to refer to the functions performed to obtain policies. Functions are the smallest activity that a person can do in order to obtain the goals set out. So therefore, policy-making consists of the performance of a group of generic administrative processÃ¢â¬ which Ã¢â¬Å"must be undertaken in an orderly mannerÃ¢â¬ (Cloete: 1998:139). Therefore the functions to eliminate South Africa of the high crime rate, for example, would be for a police constable to patrol the neighbourhood (visible policing). Chapter two is concerned with the first step of policy making, being policy initiation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 2.Policy initiation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.org) defines the word initiation as being derived from Latin and implies a beginning. Ã¢â¬Å"The related term, initiate means to begin or start a particular action, event, circumstance, or happeningÃ¢â¬ . Therefore Ã¢â¬Å"initiationÃ¢â¬ in this context means the activation of the public making process. It is therefore necessary to do a methodical investigation when a problem arises so that an effective and efficient rational policy could be implemented. Such investigation requires three steps within policy initiation which consists of the following: becoming aware of the problem; describing the problem and collecting information for solving and or preventing the problem. The first step in policy initiation would be discussed, namely, becoming aware of the problem of the high crime rate in South Africa. 2.1.Becoming aware of the problem of the high crime rate in South Africa. The recognition of a problem is reliant on the accessibility of information on the needs that move the citizen to gain the attention of the government, who in turn would decide to act or not to act. Meiring (2001:53) further explains that Ã¢â¬Å"by referring to Ã¢â¬Å"somethingÃ¢â¬ as a problem, the presumption is made that a value-judgement on a specific condition in a specific place and time, is seen by a person or group(s) of persons, as being unsatisfactoryÃ¢â¬ . If the government is unaware of the problems affecting society various stakeholders or interest groups would take the initiative and make government aware of the problem. Usually within a democratic environment the politicians and officials attempt to find solutions to the problem affecting society. Meiring (2001:53) further explains that when government wants to implement change that the characteristic of the policy making is Ã¢â¬Å"dynamicÃ¢â¬ and that the Ã¢â¬Å"awareness of the problem refers to a threefold activity.Ã¢â¬ The threefold activity as explained by Meiring (2001:53) has the following implications in the policy initiation stage. Firstly it creates an awareness and refers to a Ã¢â¬Å"new field of action and the need to undertake a search for development possibilities to promote the Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Meiring (2001:53). The second implication refers to the awareness of an Ã¢â¬Å"existing problem in the community and the need to undertake a search for a possible solution to solve the problemÃ¢â¬ Meiring (2001:53). The third implication refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"awareness of a potential problem and the need to undertake a search for a quantifiable solution to prevent the problemÃ¢â¬ Meiring (2001:53). The Institute for Security Studies (ISS) held a seminar in Pretoria on the 9th March 2007 following events in the past few months that have raised questions about a growing wave of public dissatisfaction with crime and governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s response to it. Examples that were mentioned were and Ã¢â¬Å"include statements in the media and parliament by the president and cabinet ministers, the aborted FNB media and letter-writing campaign, and increased media reports of vigilantismÃ¢â¬ (http://www.iss.co.za). The ISS seminar reviewed the Ã¢â¬Å"links between crime and perception, based on the latestÃ available quantitative dataÃ¢â¬ (http://www.iss.co.za). The topic under discussion was: Ã¢â¬Å"Crime Trends and Public Perceptions: What the Latest Statistics ShowÃ¢â¬ (http://www.iss.co.za). In brief and relating to the topic of this assignment one of the summations were that Ã¢â¬Å"crime and unemployment remained the only two out of the twenty-three critical areas in which government has constantly achieved less than a Ã¢â¬Å"pass markÃ¢â¬ (http://www.iss.co.za). Further more the South African Police Service has various existing policies in place for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa, for example, the South African Police Service Act (No.68 of 1995); National crime prevention strategy and the implementation of the development of community policing policy (http://www.iss.co.za). Therefore it is apparent that the government is aware of the problem of the high crime rate and is attempting to deal with it. It is of utmost importance that the policy makers do not treat the symptoms, but the actual cause of the problem. Crime has multiple causes as it falls within the socio-economic environment. The social environment is Ã¢â¬Å"multifaceted and consists of a number of interrelated factorsÃ¢â¬ (Van Der Waldt et al: 2002:168). Recent studies suggest that there is a link between poor economic condition (the high unemployment rate) and crime (Fox, Van Wyk and Fourie: 1998:179). The deduction is made that the policy-making process would always involve interactions between the citizens and the state institutions, for example political office bearers and officials, who have to perform the policy-making functions. It is due to the actions of the stakeholders, whether political and or civic, that the government becomes aware of the problem. The high crime rate is a socio-economic problem which has a complex and unified factors. The factors, for example are the high unemployment rate and poverty. Further more the deduction could be made that there are existing policies in place for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa but that the implementation of the policies are severely lacking. The second step in policy initiation would be discussed, namely, describing the problem for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 2.2.Describing the problem for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. In order to describe the problem correctly, the information needs to be obtained in an orderly manner and it must documented in a written format. Information is needed, as per Meiring (2001:54), Ã¢â¬Å"regarding the results that are desired, obstacles that are experienced and the limitations of the situation and thus of a solutionÃ¢â¬ . Meiring (2001:55) further states that the Ã¢â¬Å"diagnosis and description of a problem is a cyclical process which requires continuous analysis and evaluation if the policy makers wish to take realistic decisions to meet the demands of a changing environmentÃ¢â¬ . In order to seek a solution to the problem it is necessary to describe the nature and scope of the problem. As Meiring (2001:55) further states that by describing the problem it leads to an Ã¢â¬Å"observable presentation or description which could be seen as the image of the real situationÃ¢â¬ . Meiring (2001:55) further states that it is the effectiveness of how the Ã¢â¬Å"written description or presentation corresponds to the real problem that would depend on the abilities of the participants in the process as well as the quality of information that is availableÃ¢â¬ . The method in obtaining and processing information is therefore linked to the Ã¢â¬Å"human factor and is influenced by the values and perceptions of those participating in these activities.Ã¢â¬ Meiring (2001:55)Ã¢â¬ The situation is further complicated by the perceivable/observable reality which changes with time and which in turn results not only in a change of needs or in problems, but also valuesÃ¢â¬ . Meiring (2001:55) For example a couple of years ago, domestic violence was perceived to be a private matter. Currently, due to various action groups, domestic violence is no longer a private issue but has become a national issue. In order to eliminate the high level of crime in South Africa the descriptionÃ of the problem must be specific. So therefore, for example, the elimination of the high crime rate within the central business district of Johannesburg could be described as follows. The geographic scope would be large, covering the areas that fall within the central business district. More categories could be created, Ã¢â¬Å"for example the inner city and former black townshipsÃ¢â¬ (http://www.csvr.org.za). As per the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), the nature of the crimes could range from Ã¢â¬Å"housebreaking, street crime, property crime and violent crimeÃ¢â¬ (http://www.csvr.org.za). Further more the nature of the crimes are different and vary depending on the area in question. Therefore it can be deduced that there are various occurrences which should be taken into account when describing the problem. The factual information; the values and perceptions of the participants or the values and perceptions between the officials and politicians. To complicate matters further, there may be different views held by the state and the citizens. For example, the citizens believe that the crime rate is on the increase and the state believes the opposite to be true. The policy-making process is a complex matter and the description of the problem must be accurately recorded. The third step in policy initiation would be discussed, namely, the collection of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 2.3.The collection of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. The collection of information is interwoven with the previously mentioned steps, namely, becoming aware of the problem and describing the problem. The policy-makers who take policy decisions must be served with adequate information systems. In order to deal with the problem, Meiring (2001:55) states it is of utmost importance that such problems are defined in Ã¢â¬Å"quantifiable terms.Ã¢â¬ The term quantifiable means that the collecting of information must be dealt with inÃ a scientific manner. Cloete (1998:139) declares that Ã¢â¬Å"it is the functions involved in obtaining information which should be performed systematically to deliver information with which the matter to be decided upon can be quantified and qualifiedÃ¢â¬ . Once an issue (problem) is recognised, various decisions need to be taken. While making decisions cognisance must be taken of both factual information and value judgements pertaining to the issue. Meiring (2001:56) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"factual information relates to the observable, measurable information that can be collectedÃ¢â¬ . Meiring (2001:56) further explains that Ã¢â¬Å"values on the other hand relate to the inherent human feelings for what is, for example, valuable, wanted or ursu edÃ¢â¬ . A middle ground must be found between factual information and the values of the people. It must also be kept in mind that there may not be a significant amount of information available and therefore the cost effectiveness of such an exercise must be scrutinised. Collecting information is also time-consuming. It goes without saying that during this stage there is interaction and communication with all the relevant role playersInformation could be gained through research and data gathering. Some of the information could be obtained from structured interviews with Station Commissioners at randomly selected police stations. The community and businesses may be approached with the same structural questionnaire. Various statistics may be gathered from other organizations, for example, CSVR to confirm whether the crime rate has decreased or increased or what the opinions are of the community. This information gathering would involve an analysis of the information which is time consuming and which may disclose differences in notions perceived as per example the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"crimeÃ¢â¬ which is socially constructed. The deduction is made that on collection of information, not only is quantifiable data collected but perceptions and values as well. It is at the analysis of information that differences between factual data and values are shown. Chapter three is concerned with the policy formulation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 3.Policy formulation for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. Policy formulation is the second step within policy making. Policy formulation consists of six steps which are: liaison with interested parties; processing information; setting of objectives; determining priorities; considering alternatives and the survey of financial resources. Anderson, (1984:93) defines policy formulation to Ã¢â¬Å"the crafting of proposed alternatives or options for handling a problemÃ¢â¬ . MeiringÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001:56) definition is more pertinent at defining formulation, which is, Ã¢â¬Å"the clear, precise and accurate wording of processed information so as to achieve a specific aimÃ¢â¬ . The information gained must be Ã¢â¬Å"classified, described and processed into the required proposalsÃ¢â¬ (Meiring: 2001:56). Policy formulation must be a written description of the problem in order to make a choice on the Ã¢â¬Å"available alternatives to solve or prevent the problem (Meiring: 2001:56). The various actions which comprise policy formulation are often described as agenda setting. An agenda is usually a list of items to be dealt with within a meeting and are usually prioritised according to importance. Cloete and Wissink (2000:98) elucidate that it is Ã¢â¬Å"necessary to set a policy agenda because of the deluge of policy-related issues and problems that any government faces, normally with insufficient resources to address these problems effectively.Ã¢â¬ And therefore policy agenda setting is of the utmost importance to determine which policy problems should receive priority. It is imperative to mention that decision making is an important part of policy formulation as policy makers have to decide the best policy amongst the alternatives. Not only do policy-makers decide on facts they must also make decisions on values and still remain impartial. Policy formulation would give proposed alternatives to the problem of the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa and consists of various steps which are listed below. The first step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, liaison with interested parties for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 3.1.Liaison with interested parties for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. It is of utmost importance to liaise with key interested and relevant parties in order to Ã¢â¬Å"determine the public perceptions of a specific matter and to find the correct solutionsÃ¢â¬ to these problems (Meiring: 2001:56). Interest groups are beneficial to policy makers because Ã¢â¬Å"they are committed to their causeÃ¢â¬ and are Ã¢â¬Å"willing to supply information and adviceÃ¢â¬ (Craythorne: 1993:69). Various interested parties are identified by Kuye et al (2002:77) as non-governmental organisations, civilian-based organisations, research institutes, public officials, political parties, media, departmental and interdepartmental committees. The above list is not exhaustive. Meiring further states that the Ã¢â¬Å"factual information and non-quantifiable values can also be tested in such a liaisonÃ¢â¬ (Meiring: 2001:57). The real needs of the citizens must be suitably identified and an acceptable solution agreed upon to eliminate the high crime level in South Africa. Craythorne (1993:69) cautions that interested groups are so zealous about their cause that they will supply information that is beneficial. It is of utmost importance for a compromise and a solution to take place so that the end result of the policy would be to promote the general welfare of all citizens. In June 2006, Business Against Crime signed a memorandum of understanding to establish the Industry Alignment Forum Aggravated Robberies Initiative. Nine parties indicated in principle support for the initiative, which are: Business Against Crime; Cash in Transit Forum; Casinos Association of South Africa; Consumer Goods Council of South Africa; Security Industry Alliance; South African Banking Risk Information Centre; South African Council of Shopping Centres; South African Property Owners Association and the South African Reserve Bank. (http://www.bac.org.za.). Business Against Crime acknowledges that the cooperation of government and its agencies areÃ critical to the success of this initiative and that they were pleased by the SAPS interest and support (http://www.bac.org.za.). The deduction that can be made is that democracy can be strengthened if everyone works in a coordinated manner to address the challenge of the high crime rate through effective liaisioning. The second step in policy formulation must be discussed, namely, the processing of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 3.2.The processing of information for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. The data is collected from various surveys and once compiled into various reports, the data becomes information. The information is compiled in various reports, agendas and memoranda forwarded to various commissions of enquiry; departmental and interdepartmental committees, selected committees and various caucuses and councils. One of the most important guidelines in drafting a policy is that it must be done in a rational manner. Hanekom et al (2001:27) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"rationality in decision-making, as in policy-making, pertains to the making of reasoned, careful selections from alternatives in order to achieve predetermined ends.Ã¢â¬ Hanekom et al (2001:27) quote common barriers to rationality, which are mentioned as follows. Ã¢â¬Å"The personal value preference of both politicians and administrators may influence their objectivity in deciding on policy mattersÃ¢â¬ (Hanekom et al: 2001:27) and therefore the decisions become subjective. The Ã¢â¬Å"expenditure already approved for a specific project is not easily reversedÃ¢â¬ and is known as Ã¢â¬Å"sunken costsÃ¢â¬ (Hanekom et al: 2001:27) The third barrier to rationality is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"conflicting consequencesÃ¢â¬ whereby Ã¢â¬Å"the anticipated consequence of a policy are often in conflict with the unanticipated consequences of that policyÃ¢â¬ (Hanekom et al: 2001:27). Lastly, since Ã¢â¬Å"policy-making is aimed at the future and the future is unknown, a certain amount of speculation is involvedÃ¢â¬ and this is known asÃ the Ã¢â¬Å"expectations of the futureÃ¢â¬ (Hanekom et al: 2001:27). The other guideline in drafting a policy is that a policy must be defendable which relates to accountability. The policy-makers should be accountable to all role players in that they should be able to explain and defend the proposed policy. Meiring, (2001:57) further suggests that policy should conform to the Ã¢â¬Å"will and wishes of the majority of the citizensÃ¢â¬ . For example, all the data gathered from the survey done in the Johannesburg city centre has been compiled into various reports agendas and memorandum. In order for further clarity and recommendations to take place a series of public hearings are organised and held. These public hearings are held to in Ã¢â¬Å"order to justify policy attention and it forms the focus for further clarification, formulation and restructuring before the importance of acting on it by the policy system is conveyed to the policy-makersÃ¢â¬ . (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:98)The deduction could be made that the process of information must be defendable and rational and that this process is cyclical in nature and in order for policy to succeed all relevant parties must be consulted. The third step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, the setting of objectives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 3.3.The setting of objectives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. In this step it becomes possible for policy-makers to identify objectives of the intended policy. The objectives would indicate what the intensions are; how to go about achieving the objectives and by what means the objective would be achieved. In other words, what resources and capital would be needed to achieve the intended policy?Cloete and Wissink (2000:117) explain that Ã¢â¬Å"objectives set forth specific aimsÃ¢â¬ . In other words objectives are Ã¢â¬Å"measurable in quantifiable termsÃ¢â¬ (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:117). The nature of objectives is normative as it states Ã¢â¬Å"what ought to be achieved by a particular policy and contains elements of forecastingÃ¢â¬ (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:117). Cloete and Wissink (2000:117-118) elucidate thatÃ objective setting is linked with forecasting Ã¢â¬Å"by a natural progression, and is concerned with a desired futureÃ¢â¬ . It must be noted that policy is a Ã¢â¬Å"dynamic phenomenonÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"objectives, by themselves, are staticÃ¢â¬ (Kuye et al: 2002:74). This statement implies that Ã¢â¬Å"policy containing broad guidelines of governmental actionÃ¢â¬ must change according to the needs of the citizens, Ã¢â¬Å"whilst objectives remain static in terms of timeÃ¢â¬ . (Kuye et al: 2002:74)Meiring (2001:58) states Ã¢â¬Å"that when an objective has been set and made known in the public sector it is normally said that the policy has been made. It is imperative that clear objectives are set out Ã¢â¬Å"in order that all persons involved will know exactly the target at which activities are aimedÃ¢â¬ (Meiring: 2001:58). Therefore to reiterate, clear unambiguous objectives need to be set. The objectives within policy-making would indicate what the intensions are; how to go about achieving the objectives and by what means the objective would be achieved in order that all persons involved know what activities are aimed at. For example, the specific objective to eliminate the high crime rate within the city of Johannesburg alone would be to increase the number of visible policing from four to six policemen per city block over a period of one year who would sign a roster at every business within their Ã¢â¬Å"beatÃ¢â¬ . The Police Service would work in co-ordination with Business Against Crime and the public by having regular meetings to inform and educate. Cameras could be installed at various strategic places within the central business district. Increased street lighting needs to be installed in residential areas. A Zero crime tolerance campaign could be launched that would emphasise the arrest of petty criminals. It could be deduced from this section that the setting and prioritising (which will be discussed within the next step) of objectives is a process called policy making. Clear objectives need to be set and that objective setting is a statement of a desired future. The fourth step in policy formulation would then be discussed, namely, the establishment of priorities for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 3.4.Determining the priorities for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. No government is in a position to continuously satisfy all the needs of its citizens as there is a limited amount of resources to accomplish all the needs. The most important scarce resource is finance. There is a difference between actual needs and the expected needs. Meiring (2001:58) further states that Ã¢â¬Å"needs are not equal and often difficult to compare or weigh up against each otherÃ¢â¬ . The objectives, as stated before must be clearly defined. Meiring (2001:58) further elaborates that the Ã¢â¬Å"network of objectives should also be ranked in a priority list, whereby it becomes clear which objectives are more important than others. When policy makers rank and prioritise their objectives two questions are asked, Ã¢â¬Å"what should be done and what can be done, to solve or eliminate a problem (Meiring: 2001:58)?Cloete and Wissink (2000:122) state that the more Ã¢â¬Å"complex and comprehensive a policy is in terms of societal needs or demands, the greater the danger of multiple and sometimes conflicting goals and objectives can becomeÃ¢â¬ . Therefore Cloete and Wissink (2000:122) suggest different tasks that need to be fulfilled. One suggestion would be Ã¢â¬Å"establish a system of relative values and trade-offÃ¢â¬â¢s among the objectivesÃ¢â¬ (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:122). In other words to Ã¢â¬Å"trade-offÃ¢â¬ one objective for another. The other task would be to Ã¢â¬Å"prioritise the objectives and then to optimise in sequenceÃ¢â¬ (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:122). In practice this means that the selected objectives are not necessarily the best available objectives, but that the policy would satisfy t he larger section of society (Cloete and Wissink: 2000:122). For example to determine the priorities for the elimination of crime the final prioritised list would appear as follows:What should be done VSWhat can be doneEight policemen within one city block.Four policemen within a city block. Installation of cameras on every city block.Installation of cameras in problem areas only. Zero crime tolerance campaign.Only enough manpower to deal with serious crimeIt is extremely difficult to prioritise the objectives as the needs list is endless but the resource list is extremely scarce. The policy-maker needs to determine the actual needs from the expected needs which is very difficult to weigh up against. The fifth step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, the consideration of alternatives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 3.5.The consideration of alternatives for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. Once the real issue is recognised, the next step would be to recognise alternative solutions. Craythorne (1993:63) cautions that it is at this step that a Ã¢â¬Å"particular danger arises, of becoming entangled in a search after an infinite number of solutions in order to find the optimum or best solutionÃ¢â¬ . Craythorne (1993:63) further states that Ã¢â¬Å"firm leadership is required during this phase of policy-making to ensure that only those solutions are identified which are practical, feasible and likely to solve the problem in the most satisfying way and within the means availableÃ¢â¬ . In order to consider which alternative would be the best a list should be drawn up including Ã¢â¬Å"the determining of all available consequences and a comparative evaluation of each consequenceÃ¢â¬ (Meiring: 2001:59). The word consequence has a two fold meaning, effect and side effect. The effect of the policy refers to the policy output. Policy output as per, Fox, Schwella and Wissink (1991:32) Ã¢â¬Å"involves the production of policies in the form of formal legislation, administrative rules and regulations, judicial interpretationÃ¢â¬ and so forth. The side effect of a policy refers to the impact that that particular policy would have on the environment or on other policies. There are certain criteria that a policy-maker could use that would assist in the choice between alternatives. Considering the page limits on this assignment the most important criteria only are mentioned. The first criteria would be effectiveness which is Ã¢â¬Å"often measured in terms of units of products or services.Ã¢â¬ (Van Niekerk, Jonker and Van Der Waldt: 2001: 96) The second choice would be efficiency which addresses the costs of services. Adequacy would be the next criteria and usually Ã¢â¬Å"refers to the extent to which any given level of effectiveness satisfies the needs, values or opportunities that give rise to a problem.Ã¢â¬ (Van Niekerk: Jonker: Van Der Waldt: 2001: 96) It is important that the solutions are identified which are practical, feasible and likely to solve the problem in the most satisfying way and within the means available as resources such as finance and human capital are scarce. The alternatives to the solution should be listed and cognisance should be taken that the policy would have an effect on the legislation, administrative rules and any other effect. The side effects refer to the impacts on other policies and the environment. The criteria that would help a policy-maker are effectiveness, efficiency, and adequacy. Effectiveness refers to Ã¢â¬Å"doing the right things rightÃ¢â¬ ; efficiency refers to maximum output with minimum input and adequacy refers the extent that the policy satisfies the needs, values and opportunities of the citizens. Criticism, has been levied as to whether the Community Policing Forums (CPF) are still effective in enhancing public safety and if it still includes the assistance of community in combating crime. In a paper entitled South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s changing community policing policy by the Institute for Security Studies the inception of the CPF in 1996 with the promulgation of the National Crime Prevention Strategy with the Ã¢â¬Å"intention to establish broad partnership with the community to improve police services and reduce crimeÃ¢â¬ (http://www.iss.co.za.) is discusses. The CPFÃ¢â¬â¢ were created by legislation and were given the right to exercise public functions in terms of that legislation. Since then various other legislation and interim regulations had the effect of either Ã¢â¬Å"directly avoiding or downgrading the issue of state support for the CPFÃ¢â¬â¢s and even specifically outlawing some current practises of the CPF that facilitate support for their activitiesÃ¢â¬ .Ã (http://www.iss.co.za.). The result is two fold. Firstly, policy-makers who were formulating the subsequent legislation never thought what the effect and side effect would have on the CPF. Therefore, to date the CPF is a policy that exists on paper alone which is inadequate, inefficient, and ineffective and fails to respond to the needs of all the citizens. Thus it can be deduced that policy has a direct effect and an indirect effect, the effect of other legislation on CPF negated the positive impact of CPF. Policy needs to be reviewed regularly to ensure relevance and effectiveness. The sixth step in policy formulation would be discussed, namely, the the survey of financial resources for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 3.6.The survey of financial resources for the eliminate the high crime rate in South Africa. Ã¢â¬Å"Budgeting is more than a set of procedures for controlling the volume of funds flowing to agencies and programs; it is also a means and a source of opportunities for shaping the direction and intensity of public policies and the scope of governmental activitiesÃ¢â¬ (Anderson:1984:179). Anderson (1984:182) further states that the budget is also a statement of policy and in reality conflicts over money are conflicts over policy. Public revenue needs to be raised to fund public services and new ways need to be found to increase the traditional sources of income. The four main sources of traditional income as per Van Der Waldt et al. (2002:9) are: income taxation, eg personal income tax; wealth taxation for example capital gains tax; consumption taxation for example value added tax and user charges, for example, consumer tariffs. Budget gives focus to specific issues of policy thus a particular ministry which received above inflation budget increases should render a better service year on year. For example the Minister of Finance granted the Ministry of Safety and Security a 43% increase between budget year 2003/04Ã and budget year 2006/07. One can deduce that finance supports policy. (The converse is all so true) Emphasis can be shifted from one program to another by shifting financial backing. Policy approval is the third and final step within the policy-making process for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. 4.Policy approval for the eliminate of the high crime rate in South AfricaPolicy approval is the final step in the policy-making process. Once policy makers have formulated a policy the policy is forwarded for consideration and authorisation of a policy. Meiring (2001:59) states that Ã¢â¬Å"policy is found in many forms, as well as various formats because policy making takes place on various levels and various participants play a co-operative roleÃ¢â¬ . Public policy can be examined on four levels which are political, executive, departmental and operational policy. The policy on the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa would result in a specific policy and will have Ã¢â¬Å"political, executive, departmental and operational aspectsÃ¢â¬ , which must be first determined Ã¢â¬Å".(Meiring: Personal Notes:9) Each aspect Ã¢â¬Å"must be formulated and approved, before a policy can be implementedÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å".(Meiring: Personal Notes:9) There would be an higher premium of value placed on the elimination of the high crime rate as it is a political policy. According to Meiring (Personal Notes:10) there is a specific procedure which is usually followed for the approval of policy. 4.1. The procedure for consideration and approval of the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa Bill. The specific procedure by Meiring (Personal Notes:10) is now recorded for the elimination of the high crime rate in South Africa. A public bill is introduced by the Minister of Safety and Security and is dealt with as follows:Ã¢â¬ ¢Introduction and first reading where notice is given of the intention to submit a Bill on a specific subject on a specific day. On that day the measure is tabled and the short title is read, being The Elimination of the High Crime RateÃ¢â¬ ¢The second reading commences with the introduction of the policy formulated by the proposed Bill by the Minister of Safety and Security. The subjected is debated and alternative amendments are forwarded until the House accepts the policy. Ã¢â¬ ¢The third phase is the Committee Stage. The Chairman of Committees, the deputy speaker, acts as chairman for the meeting where each section of the Bill is read and debated separately. In the committee stage, the contents of the Bill are thus discussed to ascertain whether the measure will succeed in carrying into effect the policy debated in the second reading. Ã¢â¬ ¢Report stage. After the committee stage the speaker takes over as Chairman and the Chairman of Committees reports on the resolution of the Committee. Ã¢â¬ ¢The third reading that follows seldom initiates further discussion and is executed to review the Bill in its entirety. Ã¢â¬ ¢After approved by the House the Bill is referred to the President for signature. Ã¢â¬ ¢After signature by the State President the Bill is published in the Government Gazette, after which date the Bill is an enforceable Act of Parliament. ConclusionGovernment exists to satisfy the needs of the community. In order to meet the needs and demands of the community, government has to develop policies to meet those needs and demands. Therefore the citizens expect service delivery which is linked to policy and policy implementation. Policy indicates what government intentions are. The policy-making process is a time consuming and complicated because of the structure of government. The policy-making is time and space bound and it takes place within a changingÃ environment. It is imperative that the citizens are consulted during the policy-making process so that policy is adequate, effective and efficient in addressing the needs of the citizen. Books Anderson, J.E. (1984). 3rd Edition. Public Policymaking: An Introduction. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. Botes, P.S.; Brynard, P.A.; Fourie, D.J.; Roux, N.L. (1992). Public Administration and Management: A Guide to Central, Regional and Municipal Administration and Management. Kagiso Publishers. Pretoria. Cloete, F.: Wissink,H.: (2000). Improving Public Policy. Van Schaik Publishers. Pretoria. Cloete, J.J.N.: (1998). 9th Revised Edition. South African Public Administration and Management. JL Van Schaik Publishers. Hatfield, Pretoria. Craythorne, D.L.: (1993): 3rd Edition: Municipal Administration: A Handbook. Juta & Co. Ltd. Kenwyn. Fox, W.: Schwella, H.; Wissink, H. (1991). Public Management. Juta & Company LTD. Kenwyn. Fox, W.: Van Wyk, B.; Fourie, M. (1998). Police Management in South Africa. Juta & Company LTD. Kenwyn. Hanekom, S.X.: (1987). Public Policy: Framework and Instrument for Action. Sigma Press. Pretoria. Hanekom, S.X.: Rowland, R.W.: Bain, E.G. (2001). Revised Edition. Key Aspects of Public Administration. Oxford University Press. Southern Africa, Cape Town. Kuye, J.O. et al. (2002). Critical Perspectives on Public Administration: Issues for Consideration. Heinemann Publishers (PTY)Ltd. SandownMeiring, M.H.: (2001): 2nd Revised Edition: Fundamental Public Administration: A Perspective on Development. School for Public Administration and Management. University of Port Elizabeth. Van Der Waldt, G. et al. (2002): Managing for Results in Governement. Heinemann Publishers PTY (Ltd). Sandown. Other media sourcesMeiring, M.H.: Personal Notes: Unit 2 Policy Making in the Public Sector: Part 1: The Steps in Policy Making. http://www.bac.org.za. (Accessed 12/5/2007)http://www.csvr.org.za. (Accessed 6/5/2007)http://www.iss.co.za. (Accessed 6/5/2007)http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Initiation (Accessed 26/4/2007)