Wednesday, November 27, 2019

My Ideal Job

My Ideal Job Most people learn knowledge because they hope to obtain an ideal job for themselves. For my part, it is also an important reason that I learn knowledge.For my future working environment, I would like to work in marketing sector. Marketing has more to do with identifying customer needs and developing the right products to satisfy those needs, and it reaches are public through advertising. I hope that the company is located in Central Business District, and there are about a great hundred employees in the company.In addition, I think that the private secretary would be my ideal job through long studying and working. As the private secretary, I should help Director of Marketing to handle and answer his business correspondence, keep multifarious files and records of company, especially relating to some files and records of Director of Marketing, and take minutes of the meetings which is attended by him.Certainly, besides the salary, I expect to get some perks. For example, holidays and v acation time, Employee Assistance Program, social functions, subsidized health coverage for spouses, domestic partners, and competitive health care benefit coverage, including medical, dental, vision, life and so on. I need also grasp some professional knowledge about marketing, computer skills, negotiation skills, and experience of study abroad, except my basic knowledge for the job.In conclusion, because I know to speak and act cautiously, and I am very good at paperwork and daily routine, I feel that I might be suitable for the private secretary in the future.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Impact of Globalisation on Nokia Company Essay Example

Impact of Globalisation on Nokia Company Essay Example Impact of Globalisation on Nokia Company Paper Impact of Globalisation on Nokia Company Paper International Business Question 1. Using one specific company, with which you are familiar, examine the actual and potential impacts of globalisation on that company. Explain the reasoning behind the points you make. Evaluate possible strategies going forward which the company might use to respond to the impacts of globalisation you have identified. Table of Contents 1. Background 1. 1 What is Globalization? 1. 2 The Importance of Globalization regarding a business 1. 3 Nokia a brief introduction 2. Characteristics and issues influencing Globalisation 3. How globalisation impacts the company 3. Product 3 . 2 Logistics 3. 3 Acquisitions 4. Evaluation and recommendations 4. 1 Rugman and Collinsons integration-responsiveness framework 4. 2 PEST analysis 4. 3 SWOT analysis 4. 4 Conclusion 5. Bibliography Part 1 – Background 1. 1 What is Globalization? â€Å"Globalization the growing integration of economies and societies around the world â€Å" The World Bank Globalization is a very wide concept involving such diverse areas as global and domestic economies, politics, sociology and international relations. Because of this there is no general consensus regarding the definition of this phenomena. There also isn’t a clear agreement between when globalization began. Some say that it actually began when Christopher Columbus discovered America in the late 15th century and brought back such goods as tobacco, various spices and some others. While others say it’s a relatively new and began in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution. However people tend to agree that it’s never had such wide impact as in the last 20 years due to the introduction of the internet, mobile phones, decreased costs of transportation and manufacture of various goods. It’s agreed by most people that at least the following three elements are commonly involved in globalization: Shrinking Space. The lives of people are becoming more and more interconnected; not just domestically, but also globally. With increasing popularity of the social networking services such as facebook, twitter and skype it’s becoming easier to interact with people on the other side of the globe. Due to easier communication between human beings, people people in some cultures are becoming more aware of global norms. Youth in Japan for example are refusing to work long hours although this was common in the past and still is amongst the older generation. Shrinking Time. Due to the various communication and information technologies and the pace of their development, events occurring in one place have close to instantaneous impacts in other places. Catastrophic events like attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Center during September 9/11 were reported globally in a matter of seconds and also had global effects on the prices of various stocks and currencies. Disappearing Borders. Borders of Countries around the world are becoming significant only on maps, as regional trade blocks (e. g. EU, NAFTA) and supranational bodies (e. g. IMF, WTO) increasingly override national policy making in economic and business issues as well as law enforcement and human rights. 1. 2 The Importance of Globalization regarding a business. Globalization should be important to every company because it’s near ly impossible to succeed for a large business in current economic conditions without carefully analysing every single angle of it. Companies worldwide are outsourcing the production of some and in some cases even all of their goods to other countries due to cheaper labour costs and cheaper raw materials. The transportation is becoming cheaper and cheaper due to improving technology, hence it is often more profitable produce the goods elsewhere and transport them directly to the consumer. Companies are also exporting certain branches of their company to other countries (e. g. utsourcing customer service calls to operators in India) Because of these decisions companies are saving vast amounts of money, hence they are able to decrease the prices of their goods and compete very aggressively with other companies. Due to the fierce competition many businesses are forced to also use the benefits of globalisation to their own advantage. In order to survive the harsh reality of competition businesses need to constantly be aware of changing conditions regarding the quality, efficiency and cost of production and various ot her important, but constantly fluctuating factors. . 3 Nokia a brief introduction Nokia is a leading manufacturer of mobile devices, with a market share of 30% of all mobile devices globally. Interestingly the company was founded in 1865 and started its operations by manufacturing paper. The company later added electricity generation to its business activities. In the beginning of the 20th century the company started making rubber shoes along with other rubber products. Shortly Nokia expanded to cable and electronics business. By the late 1960’s the company was responsible for many different industries, hence producing many completely different products. During the 1990s the company focused solely on the fastest growing segments in telecommunications and divested itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses. While Nokia remains the global leader of mobile devices, the market share is falling slightly. Same time last year the company had 34% global market share, 4% more than currently. Worryingly the profit fell by a staggering 40% in the second quarter of 2010, compared with the previous year. The company faces strong competition in the Smartphone segment, as Apple and Google recently entered the Smartphone sector with the iPhone and Google android phones accordingly. Part 2 – Characteristics and issues influencing Globalisation In the past the world economy was dominated by 2 (bi-polar) main areas – North America and Europe, however the world moved on to a tri-polar model where 3 regions dominate the entire world. These regions are North America, the European Union and South-East Asia and they account for roughly 80% of the total value of world exports and 84% of world manufacturing value added. There has been growth in international trade and capital flows for exports and foreign direct investment respectively. During the period between the 1980 to 2007 world exports of goods and services more than doubled, reaching over 17,000 billion USD in 2007 and accounting for over 31% of world GDP. There has been significant growth in the world cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions. Most activity regarding Mergers and Acquisitions is concentrated in the telecommunications and the media, financial services, insurance sectors. The global value of Mergers and Acquisitions rose from 200 billion USD in 1990 to 1600 billion USD in 2007. Over the past years there has been a rapid growth in regional trading agreements. To name a few – European Union, North American Free Trade Area, European Free Trade Association. Members of these regional trading arrangements have preferential treatment to trade in goods and services between members of these blocs. Multinational Enterprises began locating production facilities inside these RTAs to avoid protective and discriminatory barriers. Changing international labour costs are particularly important in the globalization movement as both wage and non-wage costs (like social security, taxes, etc. ) are one of the most important factors when a business, has to decide in which country to locate the production plants and export other areas of the company. However labour costs alone are a poor indicator, that’s why relative unit labour costs are often used instead , as the RULC takes into account not only the labour costs, but also the productivity of the workforce and the exchange rate. Another important factor influencing globalization is the increasing international communication. Over the 20 years from the 1990 to 2010 the international telephone calls have risen from 33 billion minutes to over 130 minutes. Worldwide Internet users have increased tremendously from 1990 to 2006. From 1. 7 users to 136 per 1000 people. Telephone lines increased six times in developing countries. In 1990 only 21 people had telephone line per 1000, while currently this number is a whopping 132 per 1000 people. Another important factor in many countries is growth in ageing populations. Although the median age of world’s population rose only from 23. 6 years to 26. 6 years from 1950s to 2008, it’s predicted that the median age over the coming 40 years will rise to 37 years by 2050. This will definitely affect the labor supply in some countries as well as the changing consumer tastes. Producers of goods and providers of various services will have to focus on the older generation. Part 3 How globalisation impacts the company 3. 1 Product Nokia operates a total of 15 manufacturing facilities located in Finland, Brazil, China, England, Hungary, India, Mexico, Romania and South Korea. The company produces standardised products worldwide due to the enormous benefits of the economies of scale. Nokia’s products are produced in exactly the same way in every country, the only difference being that company focuses on promoting different models in different countries in various continents. Naturally as disposable income in African countries is much lower than in other parts of the world the company focuses on selling cheaper, more economical budget phones, which appeal to the majority of locals. One of such examples of phones is the Nokia 1100. This simplistic device is the world’s best selling handset with the sales of 250 million since the launch in 2003. In addition to being the best selling mobile phone it’s also the best selling consumer electronics device in the world. Despite being released in 2003 when the phones already had colour screens and cameras this phone outsold all others just because the correct marketing approach by Nokia – selling to the developing countries. This phone is capable of lasting for up to 400 hours and also has a built in flashlight which are essential functions in the parts of the world where electricity is scarce. Interestingly Nokias one billionth phone sold was a Nokia 1100 purchased in Nigeria. In Europe and North America on the other hand the company focuses on each country individually as personal income fluctuates highly depending on the region; however as over all the consumers in these areas are more technologically conscious and have higher incomes Nokia naturally sells more mid to higher end phones. Nokia’s most expensive mass produced phone was the Nokia 8800 Gold Edition which cost a whopping ? 1459. This demonstrates company’s diversity, with the ability to find a niche in the mobile phone market both ways – for the lower and higher end devices. Recently however due to the effects of the global economical recession the company introduced a new line of budget phones, hence indicating the flexibility and adaptability of the company. 3 . 2 Logistics Nokia manufactures mobile devices and related Internet and communications industries, with over 123,000 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of EUR 41 billion and operating profit of â‚ ¬1. billion as of 2009. As of December 2009, Nokia had R presence in 16 countries and employed 37,020 people in research and development, representing approximately 30% of the groups total workforce. The Nokia Research Center, founded in 1986, is Nokias industrial research unit consisting of about 500 researchers, engineers and scientists. It has sites in seven countries: Finland, China, India, Kenya, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Besides its research centers, in 2001 Nokia founded (and owns) INdT – Nokia Institute of Technology, a R institute located in Brazil. Nokias industrial design department is headquartered in Soho in London, England with significant satellite offices in Helsinki, Finland and Calabasas, California in the USA. Recently the company signed a memorandum with Cluj County Council, Romania to open a new plant near the city in Jucu commune. Moving the production from the Bochum, Germany factory to a low wage country created major dissatisfaction in Germany. The politicians in Germany even boycotted the company by trading their mobile phones to other brands. The German officials even threatened Nokia by demanding 60 million Euros which the company received in subsidies, however one of Nokia’s Chairmen replied â€Å"Unfortunately, the costs of labour, including non-wage labour costs, in Germany are not competitive enough for the mass-production of Nokia products†. This just shows how the differences and changes in the RULC in combination with various taxes on imports/exports including other important factors can steer a company like Nokia away from one country to another. . 3 Acquisitions Acquisitions are a big part of any large corporation these days and they are very important in many fundamental ways including strategically, economically and time management wise. In present times every second counts as information travels virtually instantly from one end of the globe to the other, hence a company may save valuable time and resources by acquiring another firm, which will most likely be established in the market and only s ome reorganisation may be needed. During the past few years Nokia has been actively acquiring companies with new technologies and competencies, including also investments in minority positions. Since December 1997, Nokia has acquired 41 companies or businesses. To name a few more notable acquisitions: In 2003 Nokia acquired Sega. com, a branch of Sega which became the major basis to develop the Nokia N-Gage device. This was a very notably strategic and innovative move, because the company later launched the first gaming/mobile device on such mass market. Although the device sold over 3 million units it was still considered a failure, yet it still was a very innovative move from Nokia. On June 19, 2006, Nokia and Siemens AG announced the companies would merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world’s largest network firms, Nokia Siemens Networks. Each company has a 50% stake in the infrastructure company, and it is headquartered in Espoo, Finland. The companies predicted annual sales of â‚ ¬16 billion and cost savings of â‚ ¬1. 5 billion a year by 2010. About 20,000 Nokia employees were transferred to this new company. In October 2007 Nokia bought Navteq, a U. S. -based supplier of digital mapping data, for a price of $8. 1 billion. Nokia Ovi Maps use Navteq’s maps in Smartphone’s. Ovi Maps provides offline maps, eliminating the need for a constant internet data feed. On April 10, 2010, Nokia announced its acquisition of MetaCarta, whose technology was planned to be used in the area of local search, particularly involving location and other services. Part 4 – Evaluation and recommendations . 1 Rugman and Collinsons integration-responsiveness framework Nokia is in the transnational strategy (T) quadrant as it faces high local responsiveness and high global integration. The company operates in a market with strong international cost and price competitiveness pressures but it must meet such challenges while paying due regard to the high political sensitivities of host governments (like in the case mentioned previ ously when Germany didn’t agree to the relocation of one of the production plants) and agencies. . 2 PEST analysis |Political |Changes in the future taxation policies are a possible issue as there still are countries which struggle to | | |regain economic muscle after the recession, hence it’s very likely to see some changes in weaker economy | | |countries. | |Changes in subsidies or financial funding, especially in developing economies can lead to increased costs in | | |the company | | |Changes in trade bodies is an ongoing issue, as globalization is advancing the pace in the changes between | | various trading parties are very likely to influence import/export costs along with other unforeseeable | | |impacts. | | |Political instability in countries such as North Korea, Afghanistan and Iraq can lead to global political | | |insecurities, hence unpredictably effecting business behaviour worldwide. |Economical |Overall economic situation, especially future economic f luctuations | | |Changes in consumer spending can influence the demand greatly | | |Changes in government spending | | |Exchange rates can increase/decrease import/export costs | |Social |Ageing populations such as China along with many other European countries can influence the design of future | | |mobile phones | | |Social networking sites such as Facebook and twitter are changing the accessibility to the consumers | | |Lifestyle patterns and changes | | |Media views and perceptions | | |Ethnic and religious differences | |Technological |Current and future technological innovations | | |The level of research funding | | |Changes in means of consumer purchase | | |Intellectual property rights and copyright infringements | | |Global communication technological advances | | |Digitalization of things like books | 4. 3 SWOT analysis Strengths |Leading mobile phone company by market share | | |Sales in more than 150 countries | | |Innovative company | | |20 year experience in mobile phones | | |Global brand awareness | | |Widespread Location | | |Offers products in various price ranges | | |Corporately responsible company | | |Environmentally conscious | |Weaknesses |Slow and outdated Operating System (symbian) of mobile devices | | |Poor customer service | | |Slow comeback to competition (During the beginning of the iPhone era) | |Opportunities |New and innovative future products | | |MeeGo – new OS for netbooks | | |New approach towards developing companies | | |Partnerships with other organisations | | |Symbian^3 – a reboot of the old symbian operating system for mobile phones | |Threats |Political instability | | |Economical instability | | |Incredible sales of Apple iPhone and Google Android mobile phones | | |Market share loss to competitors | 4. 4 Conclusion Nokia is one of the leading global brands, however recently companies like Google and Apple started posing extremely dangerous threats with introduction of new products and services. These companies are taking over Nokia’s market share at extremely fast pace, especially in the smart phone sector. Other communication companies like Samsung, Sony Ericson and Motorola are also introducing innovative technologies and products. Nokia needs to quickly develop new mobile phones, especially with touch screen displays and also improve the hardware performance of its devices. Although investments are being made towards new operating system development for mobile phones the company need a completely different approach, as the early beta demonstrations are not looking up to par when compared to its competitors. Nokia also need to focus on the changing economical conditions in countries like China where the standard of living is changing drastically, hence more and more people are becoming possible future customers. The company should also take in to account the changing demographic situation worldwide, where most currently dominant economies are ageing; therefore it should prepare to shift its target clientele base from young adults towards older customers. The firm should also continue manufacturing simplistic devices as there are still plenty of possible customers with little technologic knowledge. 5. Bibliography Websites: Wikipedia. 2010. Nokia. [online] Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nokia [Accessed 28 November 2010]. Wikipedia. 2010. List of acquisitions by Nokia. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 November 2010]. Wikipedia. 2010. Globalization. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 November 2010]. Nokia. 2010. The story of Nokia. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 November 2010]. Newlaunches. 2007. Nokias phone history timeline. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 November 2010]. Articlesbase. 2007. Nokia the History. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 December 2010]. Dw-World. 2008. German Politicians Return Cell Phones Amid Nokia Boycott Calls. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 December 2010]. Spiegel Online International. 2008. German State Demands â‚ ¬60 Million from Nokia. online] Available at: [Accessed 12 December 2010]. Books: Wall, S. Minocha, S. and Rees. B. , 2010. International Business. 3rd ed. Pearson Education Limited. Griffiths, A. and Wall, S. 2008. Economics for business and management. 2nd ed. Pearson Education Limited. Brooks, I. Weatherston, J. and Wilkinson, G. 2010. The internationa l business environment. :challenges and changes. 2nd Ed. Financial Times/ Prentice Hall Dicken, P. 2007. Global shift :mapping the changing contours of the world economy. 6th ed. Sage Publications Ltd. Cullen, B. J, and Parboteeah P. K. 2009. International business :strategy and the multinational company. 1st ed. T F Books US

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Ms. Martinez Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ms. Martinez Case Study - Essay Example On first physical exam she did not bring her old medical records and patient history. Al dough the results of her examinations were all right, her physician noticed that she was due for mammogram. She had to wait next 6 weeks for it. A week after the mammogram exam, results came. Dr.McGonagl, her physician told her that examination showed abnormal findings, and that she needs to visit surgeon for biopsy. First opening with the surgeon was 9 weeks later. For that period, Ms Martinez could not sleep from worry and fear.Old mammogram findings showed that there is a possibility of abnormal findings, but no one was noticed about it, nor her, nor her primary care physician. Biopsy showed that she has unusual form of cancer which had spread on lymph nodes and that Ms Martinez has to decide which kind of surgery to have. She decided for mastectomy, but when she arrived to hospital, some important laboratory findings were missing. Surgery was almost postponed, but hospital staff tracked down the missing laboratory results. Several lymph nodes were found during mastectomy, so Ms Martinez had to visit surgeon, oncologist, radiologist, as well as her primary care physician. Six months later, another lump was found, this tim e under her arm. Often irrational and unequal, American medical care system should be, according to recommendations of Advisory Commission on Cons

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Of Emilie Carles' book is The Transformation of a Countrywoman Essay

Of Emilie Carles' book is The Transformation of a Countrywoman - Essay Example This paper makes an attempt to show the challenges that Emilie Carles was confronted with as a teacher and a woman. Her contributions are also discussed. Emilie Carles Emilie Carles was born at a time when women were considered lesser human beings. Her life was full of challenges. When she was six, she fell off a two storey building, but fortunately survived (Carles and Robert 5). The village where she lived led a harsh life. When she was just four years, her mother passed on while working in a farm after being struck by lightning (Carles and Robert 7). Her siblings also passed on. It was fortunate that death spared her. Furthermore, when she started attending school, fate seemingly sided with her temporarily and she was sponsored to continue her studies to high school. She wanted to become a teacher and later she became one. Emilie Carles was an extraordinary teacher and woman. Despite going through a troubled childhood, she was able to pick the lessons that needed to be passed on t o the next generation. Her wish to be a teacher was more because of her strong desire to teach kids to question what they were told. She believed that children were very vulnerable and needed to be told the truth because what they were told was what would shape their lives. ... She believed that the real change in the society could be realized if teachers helped the youngsters to shatter the barriers they were locked in. The people were made to believe that participation in wars was a show of patriotism when in the real sense it was only the political leaders and career soldiers who benefited while the common people heavily suffered. After being married, she lost her child to a military truck. Her pain was intense, nevertheless she even became more formidable to stand up for what was right. During World War II, her husband was on top of the list for potential hostages for German soldiers. Despite all these, she was committed to telling the truth to the youngsters in schools. Her spirit to fight against the abuses of the government on its people continued even after her retirement from teaching. She went on to fight for her community and encouraged her people to fight for their rights. At one time, she led fellow citizens to stop a freeway being constructed through the valley (her village). This freeway was not going to benefit the local community in any manner but rather destroy it (Carles and Robert 250). The contributions that Emilie Carles made to her community are immeasurable. She was a watchdog for her community all her life. She knew her people were ignorant and that the politicians took advantage of this societal ignorance. She was disgusted by the fact that politicians could repeat the same words since 1789 and the people never seemed to note the monotony (Carles and Robert 252). Definitely, she is an example of a strong willed person who went against all odds to stand up for what was right. Her strong determination saw her overcome pain and the many challenges she faced. It is worth noting that the challenges were strong given

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The English Theatre during the Tudor Era Essay Example for Free

The English Theatre during the Tudor Era Essay The rule of the Tudor dynasty in England, extended from 1485 to 1603, was established after The War of the Roses between House of York and House of Lancaster. A period of unusual isolation for England from the Continental trends, Tudor period witnessed the developments of drama from the religious plays to Interludes in royal courts and from there to the regular drama in the Theatres. Drama began as an offshoot of the practices of the church and was thus religious in intention. It developed through the Tudor period acquiring a secular character by substituting moral teaching for purely religious instruction. The characters underwent a corresponding change: they were no longer Biblical figures, as in the case of Mystery plays, but personified virtues and vices. The some famous examples of these moral plays, or Morality Plays, as they were called are Everyman, a late fifteenth century work of unknown authorship and The Castle of Perseverance. Another important development in the English theatre during the Tudor period was the Interlude. It was the transitional form between the Morality play and the regular drama, in which the allegorical characters were displaced. Unlike moralities they were meant for amusement and entertainment. It was John Heywood who rendered interludes a definitive place in the development of English drama. He was a court musician and provider of amusements to Henry VIII. The interludes were dramatized at feasts and celebrations to entertain the court and the nobility. Heywood’s well-known interlude Four P’s (about 1520) represented an amusing dialogue passed between a Palmer, a Pardoner, a Pothecary and a Pedlar. Heywood continued his position in the Tudor court during the reign of Edward VI and Queen Mary. In due course of time, the interlude dissociated itself and became independent species of drama that was true to life and more regular in form. The influence of new learning prompted the performances of Latin plays of Terence and Plautus in schools and colleges. The next step was to create English plays on the classical model. The result was the first regular comedy in English, Ralph Roister Doister by Nicholas Udall, produced during the brief reign of Edward VI. It was followed soon after by Gammer Gurton’s Needle, of doubtful authorship, performed at Christ’s College, Cambridge. In the following years several Senecan Tragedies were translated in to English, which provided the model for the first English Tragedy written by Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton. It was performed before Queen Elizabeth in 1561. It was followed by Tancred and Grismunda in 1568 and Misfortunes of Arthur in 1587. Another popular drama form that was inspired from Seneca during this period was the revenge tragedy. Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy (1586) established this kind of drama in England. The rest of the Elizabethan age saw the golden age of English Drama with the rise of the playwrights who were commonly called ‘the university wits’ and of course, William Shakespeare. The Tudor period saw the growth of Dramas from the royal courts to the theatres. With the advent of the Interludes, the demand for the entertainments of this kind led to the formation of small companies of actors maintained in the houses of noblemen. They wandered from place to place performing in inn-yards market places etc. First of the permanent theatre, which was called ‘The Theatre’ was built in Shoreditch in 1576. It was followed by the establishment of eight playhouses in London. The most famous of these early theatres were ‘Rose’, where the plays of Marlowe were performed; ‘Globe’in Southwark and Shakespeare’s ‘Wooden O’, where his masterpieces were first performed. The Art of Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci The era of Renaissance saw the zenith of the European arts of painting sculpture, architecture and literature that was not surpassed in any age. Italy was the epicenter of the Renaissance the chief characteristic of which was humanism. It was a system of vision which extolled human worth and dignity, expressing deep faith in his great creative potential, proclaiming liberty and absolute rights of the individual. The works of veteran Italian artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Davinci announced the aforesaid spirit of Renaissance and their works are often considered synonymous with the Renaissance art. Humanism and Renaissance found brilliant expression in the realm of painting, sculpture and architecture. The artists of the time made use of biblical subjects, but their interpretation had little to do with the traditional religious attitude. Da Vinci’s The Last Supper and Michelangelo’s Pieta are examples. Often described as the archetype of ‘the Renaissance man’, Leornado Davinci is regarded as one of the most talented people ever lived, on account of his genius in several fields. Like all Renaissance artists, he looked upon art as an imitation of life. He is praised for stylistic innovations, especially his understanding of anatomical structure of human body in order to represent movement. The interest in human anatomy to find the mechanism underlying the gestures and expression was a feature of the Renaissance artists. Da Vinci’s interpretation of biblical episodes had the scent of human life, with all its earthly beauty and vigor. Annunciation, which is thought to be one of the earliest completed works by Da Vinci, portrays the Humanist face of Virgin Mary. Physical aspects of man’s existence were given prominence rather than that of the religious. He is best known for two paintings: Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. The latter was yet another attempt by Da Vinci to humanise the biblical episode of the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death. His mastery of depicting the expression is evident in the smile of Mona Lisa that baffled the centuries. Da Vinci’s contemporary, Michelangelo was also a multifaceted genius who proved his expertise as a painter, sculptor architect poet and engineer. His out put in every field during his long life was phenomenal. Two of his best known works, Pieta and David were sculpted before he was thirty. In spite of his low opinions about painting he contributed two important works in fresco: the decoration of the ceilings and alter walls of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican. He drew the subjects from Christian mythology but giving it an intense human interpretation thereby catching the spirit of Renaissance. These paintings, for example The Last Judgment and The Fall of Man are among the most works of art in the world. One of his greatest contributions to architecture was the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Michelangelo’s Pieta, carved in 1499, is another epitome of the Renaissance humanism. It is a representation of Mary with the dead Christ across her knees. Following the popular theme at the time he depicted the woes of mother and son as human beings and not as religious symbols. Many depictions of Mary and Christ as a child at that time represented Mary and Jesus as loving human beings. Michelangelo viewed art as something that sprung from inner motivation and from culture. While Da Vinci’s art sprung from the observation of nature and of man, Michelangelo saw nature as an enemy to over come. According to him every stone has a sculpture in it and the job of the sculptor was to chip away all that was not a part of the statue. References Dev, Arjun. (1997). The Story of Civilization. Vol. 1. New Delhi: NCERT.

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Effects of Society in Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway Essay

Society is a constant changing idea, whether that change be from region to region or a period of time. People move through it without thinking what they really are doing. Often they do not realize how much pressure society places on one’s being. It is the basis of how a person forms their opinions, beliefs, and morals. The structure of behavior rests in the society one is raised in. People’s acceptance of one another and a desire to conform create a world where people are struggling to fit in. Virginia Woolf sees this. Woolf views society as a center for conflict for the characters in her novel. They struggle with the internal dilemma of whether they should be who they want to be or what everyone else wants them to be. In the novel Mrs. Dalloway, Virginia Woolf uses stream of consciousness to demonstrate the pressures and effects of society on different characters in the 1920’s. Using both Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Smith, Woolf reveals how two different realms of society, the upper class and the middle class, can place very similar pressures and produce very similar effects on the people who dwell within each. Presented as a dynamic character, Septimus Smith is shown as a once idealistic poet who crosses over into a world where his thoughts focus solely on the injustices of humanity. This is evident when Woolf describes him saying, â€Å"It was a case of complete breakdown- complete physical and nervous breakdown, with every symptom in an advanced stage.† (Woolf 144) War, in this novel, is shown as the life-altering element of Septimus’s life. This is because of a combination of the lost of his friend Evans and Septimus’s inability to mourn that loss. Evans was Septimus’s closest friend, and his death is al... for the main characters of the novel but for anyone who allows it to be. Sources Cited Blackstone, Bernard. Virginia Woolf: A Commentary. London: Hogarth Press, 1949. (An older but excellent essay.) Daiches, David. Virginia Woolf. New York: New Directions, 1963. Hafley,James. Glass Roof: Virginia Woolf as Novelist University of California Press, 1954 Hoff, Molly. Woolf's Mrs Dalloway. The Explicator; June 22, 2002. Web. 28 Aug. 2015. Jensen, Emily. "Clarissa Dalloway's Respectable Suicide." Virginia Woolf: A Feminist Slant. Ed. Jane Marcus. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1983. Kane, Julie. Varieties of Mystical Experience in the Writings of Virginia Woolf. Twentieth Century Literature Vol 41 Iss 4 1995. Woolf, Virginia. Mrs. Dalloway. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Case Management Essay

Workflow, Business Process Management and the management of Unstructured Documents Plethora of unstructured documents such as text documents, spreadsheets, images, XML components, videos, podcasts, email messages that exists around in a large enterprise and it represents the enterprise’s information assets. The problem is that in today’s competitive environment there is an ever increasing generation and use of unstructured electronic documents. It has become highly imperative that there has to be an enterprise wide lifecycle management of these documents which can enable the workers to access the documents in a relative business context. Many product companies and experts dealing in the area of content management and business process management have proposed that a semantic relation is to be derived between documents and business domain. Thus, the semantic network that eventually gets formed will result in efficient search and filtering of these unstructured documents. Types of data: Structured and unstructured data People use and create unstructured data on daily basis. Although they may not be aware, people create, store, retrieve unstructured data in the form of emails, word documents, excel spreadsheets and other forms. The unstructured content has no data type as such so it requires human intervention to tag the data with some relevant keywords and meta tags so that it can be read by machines and applications. Structured data is also being used by people and such data is easily managed by technology being allowed for querying and reporting as the data type is predetermined and relationships are explicit. There are two categories of unstructured data: 1) Bitmap Objects: Images, videos, audio and other non-language based files 2) Textual Objects: Word documents, Spreadsheets, Emails and other written or printed language documents Most of these object types can’t be tapped easily to extract relevant information by technology or methodology as technology today can only address textual objects. With the advent of technologies like Enterprise Content Management (ECM), it has become possible to address unstructured data. Data mining and other analysis tools exist to query and analyze structured data. However, the challenge remains in bringing both the worlds of structured and unstructured data together. Once when they are brought together is when the most value can be derived and gained but this is where the highest level of challenge exists. Few challenges are listed below: 1) Irrespective of having the data in a word document format it may not be consumable from a semantic level perspective 2) A compatible technology may not be able to give insight in to the context of the information unless it is read 3) The way we interpret is largely subjective Organizational Challenges Today the organizations are inherently complex in structure and the departments are loosely connected while they work in isolation. They only come together when there is a need which leads to an internally disconnected approach. These large organizations need to be responsive to the customer and market needs. In order to be responsive they need to be agile and flexible when it comes to leveraging their matrix management structure as a whole. This can pose some long term as well as short term challenges. The path to overcome these challenges is to have follow business process which entail the entire organizations. In most organizations, wherever the business processes exist they tend to be isolated to a specific department and are usually manual. This leads to manifestation of various management and operational challenges. Some of the consequences that come up due to these challenges are listed below: 1) Due to inaccurate and untimely information generated as a result of isolated units of an organization, it becomes difficult for management and employees to take correct decisions 2) As information may not be aligned to business context or a business process it may lead to inconsistent decisions 3) Broken or incomplete workflows lead to generation of inconsistent and poor information 4) IT systems may act as inhibitors even if they support business processes when they lack system integration that would hide a single view of the information 5) Strict business rules, policies and procedures can lead to delay in fetching important information Organization and business process alignment These hurdles and challenges which the organization faces are due to factors such as inflexible procedures, legacy infrastructure, orthodox management which include: 1) Manual approach even when business processes and frameworks exist 2) IT enablers found in departments and functional silos making information sharing and gathering labour intensive and tedious 3) IT and other infrastructure is maintained centrally which may not provide quick solutions and service to meet the requirement of internal users 4) As organization is dependent on vendors or contractors for maintenance, support and development of IT and other infrastructure it raises issues of managing changes by themselves. Organizations need to orient themselves around process rather than functionally. They have the necessary infrastructure and technology in place but the challenge is to align all of it together using business processes. Aligning the organization to business processes and automating the same will help in solving decision making bottlenecks and will integrate functions, departments, core systems to deliver measurable business value. As of now most of the organizations, have IT infrastructure which comprise of applications that address each department separately. These departments may have business processes that cater to the purpose of the department specific function but this may lead to creation of unstructured and structured data in isolation from other departments defeating the purpose of one goal of the organization. Due to lack of integration between department’s applications and business processes it leads to creation of islands of redundant information for each department. Knowing that there is duplicate information across various applications residing in various departments there will be multiple points of integration which makes it even more complicated. There is a requirement of point to point integration to resolve this. This increases business risk, delivery costs and it becomes even more important to retain existing talent who can handle the data and information well. IT challenge On drilling down, the problem of not being able to use unstructured data along with structured data semantically whilst the data is specific to each department’s function and not business process of the organization is a challenge for the IT support department of organizations. Integration of silo applications and automated business processes across departments with respect to the overall business context pose many intricacies which makes it is a very challenging and a costly exercise for the IT function. Few of the reasons are listed below: 1) Laborious task to integrate a variety of business processes and applications 2) Changes in particular to each function may become difficult to replicate across the organization each time 3) Data across functions can’t be normalized due to existence of data in multiple format 4) Data inconsistencies due to unavailability of an information master leads to dependency on data stored on spreadsheets These kind of challenges have typically no end so a comprehensive solution has to be worked out which is robust and serves the goal of the organization by delivering value flawlessly. Workflow Model, Business Process Management (BPM) and Enterprise Content Management (ECM) It is Workflow Automation and a Business Process Management System that will solve the business and technical problems that have been described in this paper so far. A workflow model is automation or a semi-automation of business processes. On the other hand Business Process Management is a method for managing the workflow model while continuously evaluating its performance and closing the feedback loop. Business processes form the nervous system of an organization or an enterprise. Business Process Management (BPM) is a discipline that empowers an organization to analyze, automate, re-design, streamline, monitor and improve business process while providing end to end visibility and control from technology to people. An organization has numerous business processes which take place every now and then. They may be simple or complex and may rely on unstructured data. For e. g. Banks have a business process to process the fresh loans application, local retailer has a business process to order new inventory and more. Business processes are the means which enable people, system and information to work simultaneously in order to meet organizations’ goals. However, it is not as easy as it sounds. Consider an example where in an insurance company the claim officials need digital photos to process a claim, customer representative need customer records and statements, accounts personnel need invoice approvals to disburse the required amount. To address such multi dimensional situation companies are resorting to capabilities of Enterprise Content Management (ECM) which is Business Process Management (BPM) to integrate, optimize, and automate processes and information. This solution enables organizations to make timely and accurate decisions. Together BPM and ECM businesses are able to deal with explosion of business related content which in turn helps them in becoming nimble and agile. Primarily, there are three changes that drive the need for businesses to become nimble and agile. They are: 1) Creation of islands of business relevant content internal and external to the organization 2) High maintenance cost of information created and stored by disparate sources 3) Incremental strain on IT to meet core business requirements while driving process innovation In response to these needs ECM and BPM enable organizations with the following: 1) Empower all employees to develop process centric solution 2) Quickly synchronize information from disparate internal as well external data sources 3) Couple processes and content to meet business requirements Businesses today need to use the content that is available across the business processes rather than letting it remain restricted under applications specific to a department or a function. Holistically, the content needs to be put to use for a greater benefit and a better ROI. Management of Unstructured Documents ECM has become one of the major software category post consolidation of various solutions like Document Management, Document Imaging, Web Content Management, Digital Asset Management while collaborating with BPM. It shouldn’t be treated as only a software category but can be primarily looked at as a strategy to manage all unstructured information – images, web content, media assets and records. Secondly, its job is to ensure that the content is put to use by the business users as per the business processes. The ECM solutions available today are built to support today’s dynamic requirements of the organization. They are scalable and high on performance when it comes to handling islands of new content and information with respect to complex business processes. Their design is such that they can integrate any kind of unstructured information with business processes and provide features such as process modelling, analytic capabilities, simulation and activity monitoring. They are also capable to handle process exceptions and can respond to demands for content from associates or customers. It is deduced that ECM as a technology and as a strategy enable information management professionals to manage the unstructured information in the organization to reduce risk, improve productivity in order to bring customer delight. Market Overview Organizations are increasingly adopting ECM to manage the increasing volume and growing diversity of unstructured content which now represents around 80% of the information residing in the enterprise. The opportunity identified is to devote similar rigor to unstructured data as being given to structured data. The market for ECM registered a double digit growth between the year 2004 to 2007 but it slowed down to single digit in 2008 primarily due to recessionary conditions. As per data gathered by Gartner, around $3. 3bn was collected as license and maintenance revenue for ECM. The ECM market has forecasted compounded annual growth rate of 9. 5% through till 2013. It is expected that the revenue generated from ECM markets worldwide would exceed $5. 1bn by 2013. The ECM market has seen major consolidation between the periods of 2003 to 2007. Large players such as IBM, Oracle, EMC have been acquiring companies to capitalize in this space. For example, EMC went on spree acquiring Legato, Document, Captiva and Document Sciences. Autonomy acquired Interwoven and Open Text purchased Vignette to become the largest independent vendors in this space competing directly with Microsoft’s Sharepoint. Market Drivers In spite of the recession which forced businesses to refrain from technology spending, the ECM market remained insulated from it for the following reasons: 1) Increase in volume and complexity of content is the reason for concern and investments in ECM henceforth 2) Pricing pressure from open-source vendors stimulating higher demand 3) It targets the overall ROI of the organization As there is a need to manage risks that come along with tonnes of paper and vast variety of digital content, a focus has been brought on governance and content rationalization. Vendors are addressing this by providing different stakeholders or customers with products that serve their purpose while keeping in mind the overall business processes of the organization. Recognizing this focus area many enterprises have become conscious about the lifecycle, access management, availability and cost of the content. There has been a slowdown in the ECM market due to the recessionary climate as it made the decision makers cautious about investments. In a research conducted by Gartner it was noticed that during this period companies have started looking for a thorough business case and ROI justifications for any kind of technology expenditure. However this could also turn out to be positive for the ECM market as these are the times when the organizations will realize the benefits of ECM solutions and frameworks. Conclusion Business Process Management and Workflow are not about moving documents across departments. It is about aligning businesses to their core processes and they provide the catalyst to exploit knowledge base to provide improved customer service. Thus, help in delivering measurable bottom line benefits in variety of business cases. List of References Toby Bell, Karen M. Shegda, Mark R. Gilbert, Kenneth Chin, Mick MacComascaigh. ( October, 2009), Magic Quadrant for Enterprise Content Management http://www. gartner. com/technology/media-products/reprints/microsoft/vol10/article3/article3.html, Gartner Hakan Akbas (August 2009), Consolidation in the Enterprise Content Management Industry – Who Will Be Next – Autonomy or Open Text? http://www. cmswire. com/cms/enterprise-cms/consolidation-in-the-enterprise-content-management-industry-who-will-be-next-autonomy-or-open-text-part-i-005174. php, Cmswire Icon Resources and technologies ( 2007), Document/Business Process Management http://www. iconresources. com/new/irt_bps. html Hinnerk Brugmann, ConSense: Management of unstructured Documents using semantic Meta-Information http://www.wi2. uni-erlangen. de/index. php? id=consense PNMSOFT, Sequence and Sharepoint, http://www. pnmsoft. com/sharepoint_workflow_integration. aspx PNMSOFT, SEQUENCE BPM & workflow software platform, http://www. pnmsoft. com/sequence_bpm_workflow. aspx Rivet Logic Corporation (October 2008), Enterprise Content Management 2. 0: The Case for an Open Source Approach http://viewer. bitpipe. com/viewer/viewDocument. do? accessId=12186060, Bitpipe Research Kyle McNabb (March 2008), Enterprise Content Management http://www., Forrester Research Ann All (March 2010), Case Management Is Step Forward in BPM Evolution , http://www. itbusinessedge. com/cm/community/features/interviews/blog/case-management-is-step-forward-in-bpm-evolution/? cs=39882&page=2 Strategy Partners (2003), Business Process Management and Workflow, http://www. aiim. org. uk/download_files/aiimuserguides/5_BPM_and_Workflow. pdf, AIIM International – ECM Association Barclay T. Blair (October 2004), An Enterprise Content Management Primer, The Information Management Journal

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Progressive Presidents Essay

At the start of the 19th century, a new era had begun that would forever change the course of American history. This new era was known as the Progressive era; an era of change amongst the common worker and the powerful giants of industry. Two major leaders that occupied this specific moment in time were Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. However, these prominent men had contributed much to the efforts of the progressive movement; each one had different personal views that dictated their approach. This paper attempts to compare and contrast these men’s progressive ideas apart from their actions. We will start with Woodrow Wilson, in his inaugural speech, he had addressed changes in the government to show favor towards the popular Party (Wilson, 1913). Wilson explains, by asserting that the nation desires the Party to interpret and change the nation’s designs and views. He claims that now the government and the nation’s job are to cleanse and correct the carele ssness and ills conveyed about by the country’s industrialization (Wilson, 1913). Wilson also touches on the matters that need settlement, which extends from the need to adjust the foreign tariff, the banking strategy, the industrial scheme, and the agricultural strategy. He also discusses how the government desires to protect its people’s lives with sanitary regulations, untainted food regulations, and work regulations. He stresses that there will be repairs in the financial strategy, and that â€Å"Justice, and only fairness, shall always be our motto† (Wilson, 1913). With Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressive platform, he called for the direct election of United States senators, woman suffrage, reduction of the tariff, and many social reforms. Roosevelt, who served as the 26th president of the United States from the years of 1901 to 1909, he commenced on an energetic campaign as the party’s presidential candidate. A key point of his platform was the â€Å"Square Deal.† This was Roosevelt’s concept of a society based on fair business competition and increased welfare for needy Americans (Bowles, 2011). Despite Wilson’s measured successes in labor, child labor, banking, business, and farming reforms during 1914 and 1915, his New Freedom was a disappointment amongst woman and African Americans. In 1916, Wilson began pushing for a multitude of reforms that were in part motivated by the upcoming election. The reforms included the Federal Farm Loan Act, the Adamson Act, the Keating-Owen child labor law, and support for women’s suffrage. After, 1916, Wilson accepted much of Roosevelt’s New Nationalism, supporting greater federal power and regulation. However, as America soon began sending military to intervene in the war in Europe, this action ended his reform ambitions (Roosevelt, 1911). Roosevelt had his successes and failures as well. Roosevelt brought about change in the meat packing industry with the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act, which is due to the work of Upton Sinclair (Roosevelt, 1911). However, like Wilson, he would fail to achieve any changes for women and African Americans. This occurred because of growing criticism and his belief in African American inferiority. As for women, he did not bring about their right to vote. It would not be until the ratification of the 19th amendment during Woodrow Wilson’s presidency that the suffrage movement reached its goal (Roosevelt, 1911). When Roosevelt’s time in office ended, he felt his chosen predecessor, Taft, would lead the country and carry on the progressive movement. Throughout his years as president, Roosevelt increasingly disapproved of his methods, and choices. One of those choices that angered him was when Taft transferred over 1 million acres to private industry. All this came to a head when Roosevelt sought to gain the Republican nomination to run for president in the 1912 election, supersedes Taft. However, Roosevelt lost the nomination, and decided to run for president anyway by forming his own party, the Bull Moose Party. Even though Wilson became the president, he stole enough votes to make sure Taft had no change in winning (Bowles, 2011). For years to come the work, Roosevelt and Wilson in the Progressive era helped to improve American life, business and make it safe and a competitive market. These two presidents met the problems head on created by industrialization and urbanization that the government had not yet addressed. Each of them brought a slightly different approach to the concept of trusts, big business, and improving the life of the everyday person, although, they were successful in establishing new precedents in the way which the federal governm ent would regulate these new reforms. View as multi-pages

Friday, November 8, 2019

Charles de Gaulles Impact on Frances Re-emergence as a Great Nation essays

Charles de Gaulles Impact on Frances Re-emergence as a Great Nation essays Few individuals in history have had such a profound impact on the destiny of a nation as Charles de Gaulle, who from the time of his heroic refusal to accept the humiliating defeat of the French in 1940 at the hands of the rampaging Germans, to his resignation of the Presidency in 1969, symbolized French independence and guided his countrys re-emergence as a great nation. It may come as a surprise to those who are unfamiliar with French history that de Gaulle was just a colonel in the French Army at the start of Second World War. But he was no ordinary colonel, a fact that was belatedly recognized by the French government when, amidst the military debacle of May-June 1940, he was given command of the 4th Armored Division1, and then appointed as the undersecretary of defense just before the complete capitulation of the French government. Hence, it was only with a tenuous mandate to represent the French nation2 that de Gaulle made his famous call in a BBC radio broadcast on June 18, 1940 to his countrymen for resistance against the Germans. Given the ground realities at the time, De Gaulles appeal may have appeared quixotic, but his refusal to accept the armistice was, in the words of Pierre Manent, the decision from which the whole Gaullist epic sprang. (Manent, 202) In Frances darkest hour, de Gaulles defiance, gave faith and hope to his fellow Frenc hmen who had fallen into despair. From his exile in London, de Gaulle then set about doggedly lobbying for acceptance of Frances sovereignty by the Allied powers. He also single-handedly galvanized the expatriate Frenchmen, and the French resistance inside France, to join him in his fight against Nazi Germany by forming the Free French movement. During 1940-44, de Gaulle never compromised on the independence of his actions and by his unflinching will and sense of honor made himself the embodiment of the French state its...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

There Are Lots of Ways to Say I Love You in German

There Are Lots of Ways to Say I Love You in German A widespread clichà © of Americans among Germans is that they tend to love everybody and everything and do not shrink from telling everybody about it. And to be sure, Americans do tend to say â€Å"I love you† more often than their counterparts in German-speaking countries. Why Not UseIch Liebe Dich Liberally Sure, â€Å"I love you† translates literally as â€Å"Ich liebe dich† and vice versa. But you cant sprinkle this phrase quite so liberally throughout your conversation as you might in English.  There are many different ways to tell people that you like or even love them. You only say â€Å"Ich liebe dich† to somebody you really, really love- your long-term girlfriend/boyfriend, your wife/husband, or somebody you have very strong feelings for. Germans dont say it rashly. It is something they must feel sure about. So if youre in a relationship with a German-speaker and waiting to hear those three little words, dont despair. Many would rather avoid using such a strong expression until they are completely sure its true. Germans Use Lieben Less Frequently Than... In general, German speakers, particularly older ones, use the word â€Å"lieben† less frequently than Americans do. They are more likely to use the phrase Ich mag (I like) when describing something. Lieben is considered a powerful word, whether you are using it about another person or an experience or an object. Younger people, who have been more influenced by American culture, may tend to use the word lieben more often than their older counterparts. Just a bit less intense might be â€Å"Ich hab’ dich lieb† (literally, I have love for you) or just â€Å"ich mag dich† which means â€Å"I like you†.   This is the phrase used to tell your feelings to beloved family members, relatives, friends or even your partner (especially in an early stage of your relationship). It is not as binding as using the word â€Å"Liebe†. There is a huge difference between â€Å"lieb† and â€Å"Liebe†, even if there is just one letter more. To tell somebody you like him as â€Å"ich mag dich† is just not something you would tell everyone. Germans tend to be economical with their feelings and their expressions. The Right Way to Express Affection But there is another way of expressing affection: â€Å"Du gefllst mir† is hard to translate properly. It wouldn’t be suitable to equal it with â€Å"I like you† even it is indeed rather close. It means more than you are attracted to somebody- literally you please me. It can be used to mean you like somebodys style, their way of acting, the eyes, whatever–perhaps more like â€Å"you are lovely†. If you have made the first steps and acted and especially talked correctly to your beloved, you can go further and tell him or her that you have fallen in love: â€Å"Ich bin in dich verliebt† or â€Å"ich habe mich in dich verliebt†. Rather ponderous, right? It all comes together with the basic tendency of Germans to be rather reserved until they really know you.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

International Crime Witness Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

International Crime Witness - Assignment Example The country follows a bicameral system in terms of political domain. The responsibilities of the central government and state are segregated apparently. The federal government controls the legal functions of the entire nations through legal policies and numerous regulations (Tatsachen, 2014). Germany is the largest among of the economies in the European Union (EU). A constant increase in GDP has been witnessed by the country in the recent past. It is considered as a global hub of business sector with special inclusion of the automobile sector. A considerable percentage of the employment is provided by the SMEs (Tatsachen, 2014). Regulations for the criminal act in Germany are deemed to be quite certain. However, with the passage of time, certain amendments have been brought in the legal structure, which has further provided systematic rules for contemplating the witnesses in crime scenes. As per Subsection 6 of the Criminal Code, a witness is seen as a contributor towards the preventer of any particular offence or crime. The regulation depicts that the primary responsibility of any witness is to stop crime voluntarily in the first place. The Criminal Code of Germany also depicts that crime witness needs to voluntarily depict his/her knowledge about the crime to the concerned authorities as early as possible so that proper measures can be taken. However, this particular aspect of the law is only limited towards witness of the criminal offence and not for any other legal scenario. Article 5 of the Principal Witness Act is also an important decree that specifically determines the process followed to deal with t he criminal witness. As per this particular code of the German criminal law, a witness should not intend to misguide the case with their information or else they might be liable to get imprisonment of 1 year (Hilger, n.d.). Criminal suspects in the US are liable to enjoy certain individual rights. As per the fifth amendment of the federal law of the US, all criminal defendants will have the right to get free trial along with certain rights relevant to search and seizure.     Ã‚  

Friday, November 1, 2019

What is critical thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

What is critical thinking - Essay Example It also involves the observation of things in open-minded ways and examining them from various perspectives. Critical thinking allows people to see beyond their view of things and understand the opinions of other people better. Critical thinking is usually used in discussions to form well-rounded and cogent arguments. Critical thinking uses multiple skills such as logic, accuracy, relevance, fairness, clarity, precision, and completeness. Critical thinking has benefits that range from personal life and working place to scientific research and academic education. It is quite unfortunate that most people’s thinking are distorted, uninformed, partial, and biased, which form barriers to effective critical thinking (Moore & Parker 2011). Critical thinking requires the ability from an individual to approach situations and problem in a rational manner. Thinking in a rational way requires proper analysis of what is known and deriving conclusions based on evidence or facts rather than feelings or opinions. Reasoning in an honest way requires thinkers to acknowledge motives, personal goals, and emotions that can corrupt one’s thought processes and opinions. Rational thinking should identify and eliminate prejudices that inhibit fresh and objective approaches to situations (Moore & Parker 2011). Critical thinking is important as it generates new avenues of problem solving. Critical thinking requires people be open-minded. Being open-minded permits people to find all possible answers to an obstacle and accept solutions and answers different from the initial expectations. Being open-minded requires people not to assume their ways of providing solutions are always right or the best. Scientists, for example, should be aware that the results of research or experiment will not always meet their expectations. Results obtained from such experiments can be challenging, but will eventually lead to meaningful discoveries (Moore & Parker 2011). Critical thinking